Costs of extension: Extension costs 2022: Plus 30 ways to max out your budget

Home Addition Costs 2021 | Cost To Add A Room | Home Addition Prices

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Average Price

$20,000 – $80,000

What is the cost of a Home Addition?

Need more room to enjoy your home but worried about the dent it will make in your pocket? Read on to find out how much your property extension builder will charge for single-story extensions, multi-story extensions, and more.

What does a Home Addition involve?

A home addition / property extension adds space and value to your home by extending its current boundaries. Property extensions vary widely in size and shape, depending on your budget and how much extra space you want to add. Whether your extension is a simple single room addition or an extensive multi-level extension, it will increase the value of your property significantly, especially if extra bedrooms and bathrooms are created. 

How much does a Home Addition cost

Home Addition costs
Average cost (in total) $20,000 – $80,000
Minimum cost (in total) $17,000
Maximum cost (in total) $350,000

What changes the cost of a Home Addition? 

As you can see, the cost of getting a property extension can vary widely. Let’s take a look at the different factors affecting price: 

Your current property 

The age and style of your property will have a part to play in determining the type of extension you need and how expensive it will be. Even though it’s an additional cost, it’s worth getting expert advice as this will ensure you choose the most suitable extension for your property. 

It’s up to you to think about what’s most important to you. You might decide that you only need more space downstairs, or you might think your upstairs bedrooms will also benefit from an extension. 

Remember, in most cases the size of your yard will be reduced by getting an extension. It will also affect access to your yard, especially if you are building out to the side of the property. Some double-story extensions are hollowed out at the bottom which means you won’t lose access. 

Size of the Addition

Home additions can vary hugely in shape and size depending on your property and your requirements. Laborers will usually charge per square meter, so size will be the biggest factor influencing cost.

Type of Addition

Average cost of Home Addition
Type of extension Highest average price Lowest average price
Single room $78,000 $17,000
Same level $150,000 $40,000
Multi-level $350,000 $100,000

In the US, the average cost to extend is between $86 and $206 per square foot. There is a huge price gap between the cheapest single room extensions, which range between $17,000 and $78,000. The room you are looking to extend is the biggest consideration here, with master bedrooms in luxury homes being the most expensive to extend the single room category.

The most expensive property extension overall is a multi-level one, which can be as expensive as $350,000. It all depends on the size and complexity of the build. However, a multi-level extension will give you the most space of all the possible extension types. 

Other considerations 

  • Neighbors – If you have neighbors, remember to take into account their needs. If your building work is likely to be disruptive, you should discuss this with your neighbor beforehand. You also need to make sure that any building work doesn’t impinge on their land or block any light from their home. 

Extending my property – is it worth the cost? 

If you don’t want to move house but lack the space you need then definitely! A property extension can give your property a new lease of life, creating a new warm and inviting space for cooking, relaxing, or playing. An extension may seem like a big commitment price-wise, but if it is built to a high standard, then it’ll add significant value to your property for years to come. 

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2022 Hair Extensions Cost | Tape-In, Sew-In, Fusion & Micro Bead

Average Hair Extensions Cost

The national average cost of hair extensions is between $200 and $600. On the low end, clip-in and tape-in hair extensions range from $100 to $200. Professional glued-in extensions prices are between $600 up to $3,000 for a full-head of extra-long, permanent, cold-fusion extensions with virgin hair.

Hair Extensions Cost
National Average Cost $275
Minimum Cost $100
Maximum Cost $1,000
Average Range

Hair extensions are the ultimate Hollywood-style shortcut to get a celebrity look by getting a full, voluminous head of hair within one day. It’s recommended to choose 100% human hair and invest in the highest quality of hair you can afford instead of opting for synthetic pieces. Hair extensions prices vary widely according to the style you want and your natural hair’s condition as we’ll discuss below.

Table of Contents

  1. Average Hair Extensions Cost
  2. Hair Extensions Prices By Type
  • Clip-in
  • Tape-in
  • Sew-in
  • Weave
  • Fusion
  • Glued-in
  • Bonded
  • Micro-bead
  • Cost of Hair Extensions At A Salon
    • Permanent Hair Extensions
  • Average Cost of Human Hair Extensions
    • Full Hair
    • Short Hair
  • How Long Do Hair Extensions Last?
  • Frequently Asked Questions
    • Do Extensions Damage Your Hair?
    • Strand By Strand Hair Extensions
    • Hair Extension Products Cost
  • Hair Extensions Near Me
  • Hair Extensions Prices By Type

    Hair extension prices range from $100 to $3,000 depending on if you buy clip-in extensions to put in your own hair or get high-quality semi-permanent extensions professionally glued-in at a salon. Hair stylists suggest matching the amount of hair added with the current density of your hair. If you have finer or less hair, add less than someone with more voluminous long hair.

    Hair Extensions Price List
    Type Average Cost
    Clip-in $100 to $500
    Tape-in $200+
    Sew-in $275+
    Weave $100 to $600
    Fusion $200 to $1,000
    Glued-in $300 to $500
    Bonded $1,500 to $3,000
    Micro-bead $200+
    • Clip-in hair extensions: $100 to $500. Best for thick and medium hair. Last for one year if not worn continuously. Pros: Easiest to put on and remove. Can wear temporarily without damaging your natural hair. Cons: May slip out while wearing if you get cheap clips.
    • Tape-in hair extensions: $200+. Best for thick and medium hair. Last for 6 to 8 weeks. Pros: Quick to attach. Lays flat against the head for easy concealing. Cons: Removing them can leave a sticky residue behind. They can tangle easily.
    • Sew-in extensions: $275+. Best for thick hair. Last for 2-6 weeks. Pros: Affordable. Don’t require heat or anything that can damage your hair tips. Cons: Can create added tension on your scalp that can lead to hair breakage over time.
    • Real hair weave: $100 to $600. Best for thick hair. Last for up to 8 weeks. Pros: Look very natural. Strong extensions that stay in well. Cons: When attached to braids, they can feel painful and irritate the scalp. May also lead to hair breakage over time.
    • Fusion hair extensions: $200 to $1,000. Suits all hair types. Last for up to 3 months or more. Pros: The bonds are nearly invisible in the hair. Cons: Improper removal can lead to significant hair damage and weakening.
    • Glued-in extensions: $300 to $500. Suits medium to thick hair types. Last for 4 to 8 weeks. Pros: The bonds blend in well with your hair. Cons: Acetone products used to remove them can weaken your hair.
    • Bonded extensions: $1,500 to $3,000 for deluxe cold-fusion bonds. Suits all hair types. Last for 3 to 6 months. Pros: Highly durable. Less-damaging for hair when they don’t require heat to apply. Cons: Require maintenance appointments every month or so for upkeep.
    • Micro-bead extensions: $200+. Best for thin hair. Last for 2 to 6 months. Pros: Long-lasting without damaging the hair. Lightweight. Cons: Require extra care during styling and maintenance appointments every month or two for adjustments.

    How Much Are Clip-In Hair Extensions?

    Clip-in hair extensions cost about $100 for 20 inches of hair or as much as around $500 for a pack of nine sections of hair 30 inches long. Temporary hair extensions cost less because you can easily put on clip ins yourself. Clip-in hairpieces are a great hair loss solution for thinning hair. However, be wary of a low average price for clip in hair extensions because those tend to have poor-quality clips with a weaker grip.

    Tape-In Hair Extensions Cost

    Often made from real human hair, you’ll see the tape in extensions price range start at around $200 for partial extensions at a salon. Other hair extensions for thin hair cost much more because they take more time to put in than tape-ins.

    They are segments of hair attached to double-sided keratin tape. They come in pieces about 2 inches wide, and the stylist applies them very close to your roots while slightly overlapping them so that they blend in. They sandwich your hair in between the extensions, adhering the extensions together to add strength. They are easy and quick to put in because the stylist only needs to peel back the coating and stick them on. That makes the typical tape in extensions cost very affordable. When properly worn, they lay completely flat and undetectable underneath your natural hair.

    How Much Are Sew-In Extensions?

    Sew-in extensions prices begin at $275 with an additional $60 for each separate track of hair sewn in. Permanent sew-in extensions cost less than fusion treatments but more than clip ins due to the work involved.

    With this technique, stylists sew around strands of your natural hair to attach it to the long track of new hair using a fine needle and thread. Braid in extensions costs won’t always be the same price as sew-ins because not all sew in extensions require braids. If you have extra thick hair, then you don’t need to keep sections of your hair braided into cornrows first to support the extensions. Today’s hairdressers have ways of pinning hair back, sewing in the extensions and then releasing the rest of the hair after securing the extension evenly across the head.

    How Much Does a Weave Cost?

    People using the term “hair weave” generally refer to permanent extensions sewn onto braids. Prices for hair extensions to be weaved in can vary from $100 to $600 depending on the type of weave you get, the length of the hair and the quality of your hair extensions.

    You need about 6 to 10 tracks for a full-head weave, which may last a few weeks or up to two months. Remember that your total hair weaving cost will include the hair extensions plus the time the stylist needs to attach them properly. Please be advised that those with thinning hair should not get a traditional weave. This style is best for naturally thick hair.

    Fusion Hair Extensions Cost

    You’ll find many kinds of fusion hair extensions available because this term technically includes glue-ins, bonded extensions, as well as all types of nano and microbead, link or loop hair-extension systems. That’s why fusion hair extensions cost anywhere from $200 to $1,000 or more at a salon.

    Some stylists use the term “cold fusion” to refer to any extensions that don’t require heating an adhesive, even I-Tip micro link hair extensions. Still, new application systems such as the Cold Fusion system by Great Lengths uses a machine with an ultrasonic iron to bond the extensions to the hair without using heat. It’s less damaging, but it can cost more.

    Extensions Glued In Cost

    Those with naturally thick hair may want to have hair extensions glued in, which provides a very strong hold. Glue in hair extensions cost anywhere between $300 to $500. However, they’re not typically suitable for fine or thin hair due to the thickness of the bond created by the heated glue.

    In this method, the hairdresser takes segments of Keratin pre-bonded extensions (i-tip and u-tip) and uses a low-heat iron to melt the keratin bond onto and around your strands of natural hair.

    Bonded Extensions

    Cold-fusion bonded extensions prices are higher when adhesive-based because these particular extensions can last up to six months. Keratin bonded hair extensions cost around $1,500 to $3,000. In this approach, a stylist carefully applies a keratin-based polymer to attach the extension securely to carefully selected strands of hair. Without requiring heat, it’s also less damaging to your natural hair.

    Micro Bead Hair Extensions Cost

    Microbead hair extensions cost around $200 plus the salon-installation cost. Also called by some as a micro weave or beaded-weft extensions, micro-beaded hair extensions work using a metal crimp bead with a silicone lining that’s the same color as the roots of the hair. Then the hairstylist threads a small section of the client’s natural hair through the bead. Next, they slide a small portion of the hair extension up through the bead so that it lays on top of the natural hair. Finally, they use pliers to crimp it shut. The resulting bead rests completely flat against the head, making it easier to blend into fine hair.

    Natural Beaded Rows™ hand-tied hair extensions combine nano-size micro beading with a sew-in approach. Average natural beaded row hair extensions cost around $300 to $500 depending on how many extensions you get and their length. First, the stylist attaches thin microbeads and ties them together with a fine, durable thread to create a base for the other extensions. Then the hairdresser sews a new track or weave of hair, dyed to perfectly match your color, gently onto the micro-bead base for a lightweight and robust finish. These extensions can last for two years if you get tightening appointments every 6 to 8 weeks.

    Micro Link Hair Extensions Cost

    Micro links and micro-beads are essentially the same types of hair-extension methods, so they fall within the same price range of $200 and up as mentioned above. The only differences are the sizes, colors, and styles of the beads or links. Nanobeads or links are the smallest-size bonds you can buy.

    Micro Loop Hair Extensions

    The average micro loop hair extensions price is $35 for three sets of 18-inch extensions when you buy from beauty-supply outlets. It costs more at salons, but they can assist you better in choosing the right colors and textures to match your hair.

    Micro loop extensions cost a little less than micro ring extensions because, with the loops, there’s no need to purchase additional micro rings that match the client’s natural hair color. Micro-loops come with hair extensions already attached to the plastic loop. You just pull the hair through the plastic loop, slide it up and crimp the bond in place with pliers. To remove, use the pliers to loosen the bond and then slowly slide the hair extensions down off of the natural hair strands.

    Cost of Hair Extensions At A Salon

    Hair extensions prices in salons can range from $400 to $800 for a partial head of hair and can go up to $1,600 for extensions along the full head. Salon prices are a bit more than if you buy from a wholesale supplier. However, hair extensions for weddings turn out better when you have the expertise of an experienced stylist to give you advice, providing a bigger selection of options that you couldn’t do on your own. Plus, the cost of hair extensions at a salon often includes a haircut and styling to help the extensions look like a natural part of your hair.

    Salons calculate your total professional hair extensions cost after they give you a consultation to determine the price of the hair extensions you choose, the quantity of hair needed, the length of the extensions and the time it will take to put them in. Fusion-bonded extensions cost more because they make take 3 hours to attach, while tape-ins go much quicker and thus cost less.

    Permanent Hair Extensions Cost

    You’ll find that permanent hair extensions prices can range from $500 to $1,800 according to the length of the hair and the final look you desire.

    The permanent extensions price generally refers to the stronger fusion-style applications. The higher permanent hair extensions cost is because salon specialists may use tools such as a hair-extension laser applicator to soften the bonds of the hair pieces. Then they roll them onto strands of your hair so that they blend in almost seamlessly, leaving behind a tiny bond that’s as small as a grain of rice. Plus, the bond matches the natural hair color, so it’s not noticeable.

    Average Cost of Human Hair Extensions

    For some women, the higher cost of real hair extensions is worth it because they look more natural and are easier to style. Pure 100-percent human hair extensions prices average at $75 to $120 if you buy them directly from the supplier. The average cost of human hair extensions depends on the source and quality of the hair as well as how your stylist applies them. However, unless they’re clip-ins, experts recommend that you get a stylist to put them in for you professionally.

    Virgin hair that’s completely untreated comes in top-quality condition. Virgin hair extensions allow you the freedom to dye and cut them so that they blend well with the rest of your hair.

    Full Hair Extensions Cost

    Full long hair extensions are typically longer and placed on the sides as well as the back of the head from below the crown to the nape of the neck. Synthetic hair extensions are more affordable and weather-resistant, ranging from $5 to $50 per pack. However, you can’t use heat to style them.

    On average, real human hair extensions cost $20 to $500 depending on the type of extensions you buy. It could cost up to $1,600 for virgin hair and having a professional hairstylist attach them for you, which is necessary especially for fusion-style methods.

    Extensions For Short Hair

    Extensions for short hair cost less than long hair. For example, some websites offer 6-inch hair extension clip-ins for $35 to $70 or more per set. Keep in mind that hair extensions for short hair prices can vary greatly depending on the quality of the hair you buy and the method of application.

    How Long Do Hair Extensions Last?

    One of the most important questions you should ask about extensions before you pick out your new hairstyle is how long do they last? According to stylists interviewed by Cosmopolitan, it varies according to the extension type and how well you take care of them. Glue-ins average at about 4 to 8 weeks. Both tape-ins and protein-bonded hair extensions can last from 6 to 8 weeks. Clip-ins can last up to one year since you don’t usually wear them continuously.

    Hair Extensions Last
    Type Lasts
    Glue-ins 4 to 8 weeks
    Tape-ins 6 to 8 weeks
    Protein-bonded 6 to 8 weeks
    Clip-ins One year

    How long do extensions last if you use lots of styling tools on your hair?

    Extensions start getting frizzy and dry out if you use curling irons and blow dryers on them daily. If you must style with heat frequently, use frizz-reducing thermal-protecting sprays on your hair first and deep-condition weekly.

    Frequently Asked Questions

    Do Hair Extensions Damage Your Real Hair?

    Some types of hair extensions can damage your hair more than others. It’s best to have a professional hairstylist put your extensions in for you to avoid getting tangles that won’t come out or other messy complications.

    Temporary clip-ins are the most natural extensions to wear that do the least damage to your hair. You can remove them frequently so that your hair has time to breathe.

    Other hair extensions will cause at least a little minor damage to your hair where the stylist attached them. You’re likely to have some sections that become more dried out than the rest of your hair. The most significant cause of damage happens when you don’t remove hair extensions correctly. Without the right tools and technique, you’ll probably break your hair or badly fray it.

    How Much Do Strand By Strand Hair Extensions Cost?

    The term “strand by strand hair extensions” refers to all the different kinds of bonded extensions: glue-ins, keratin hot-glue bonded extensions, ultrasonic bonds, micro or nano-beads or links as well as micro loops. Therefore, strand by strand hair extensions costs can range widely from $600 to $3,500 and may take up to 8 hours to complete.

    How Much Do Good Hair Extensions Cost?

    Hair Extensions Cost By Brand
    Brand Average Cost
    Hotheads Hair Extensions $350
    Dream Catcher Hair Extensions $100
    Remy Hair Extensions Packs of 7 pieces for $50 or up to $120 for Remy human hair
    Top Secret Haircessory® Extensions $320 to $450
    Platinum Seamless Extensions $145 and up
    Great Lengths Protein-bonded Extensions $200 or more depending on hair length and style

    Get free estimates on Fash from trusted hair extension salons:

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    House Extension Cost In 2022

    Adding a little bit of space, an additional room, or an even a bigger extension may be your dream, but the cost factor can be daunting.

    However, home extensions add a great value to your home with as much as a potential 50% investment return. We provide some ballpark estimates for house extension costs in this article so that you can start planning for one. 

    Average cost of house extension

    House extensions can cost anywhere between $20,900 to $72,600. The cost varies depending on the size of the extension, materials used, and finishing touches.

    Sometimes, the cost of an extension may also depend on the area you are living in. For example, renovations in a suburb will differ compared to the city.

    In most cases, extending your house is still cheaper than getting a new one, considering the legalities that must be factored in.

    House extension cost per square foot 

    On average, adding on a room would cost anywhere between $80 to $200 per square foot. 

    How to estimate the cost of a house extension? 

    Home extensions can be rather complex, with work needed on wall structures, roofs, wiring, plumbing, and plastering. Depending on what you plan to add, you might even need to lay new foundations. 

    Looking at all these factors, here’s how you can roughly estimate the cost of a house extension.

    Size of extension

    The bigger the extension, the higher the cost will be. This is simply because you’ll need a lot more material. Labor costs may also increase as bigger projects will likely take longer than small-scale projects.

    Location of your home

    Different states, cities, urban areas, or suburbs – where you’re located will affect the price of your extensions.

    For example, homes with the same square footage cost way more in coastal urban areas compared to houses farther inland.

    In addition, material and labor costs also vary from area to area. 

    Quality of materials

    There are many materials that you can choose from, ranging from concrete, wood, marble, and many more.

    Besides that, various types of flooring materials, lightings, fixtures, windows, and doors are available, and they all differ in terms of cost and quality.  

    For example, when planning a kitchen top, using marble or granite would cost a lot more than normal tiles.

    Planning permission

    Another thing to consider when extending your home is obtaining permission from the authorities. Thankfully, not all extensions require permission.

    Nonetheless, be sure to factor in the costs of obtaining permits from your local councils and check with them on the exact permits needed.


    Builders will need access to bring their machinery and materials in and out.

    If clearing of space is required before the start of your project to create adequate access to your place, then the cost may increase.

    Fittings and furnishings

    You can only expect to pay a lot more if you want your house to look like it just came out of a home styling magazine with beautiful lighting, extraordinary flooring, and bespoke designs. 


    Groundworks must be done correctly to ensure the structural integrity of your extension.

    You’ll have to budget extra money if any drains or tree roots require moving.  The type of soil at your home may also affect groundwork costs. 

    However, this step should not be compromised no matter what.

    Clearing Of Space

    You may have to remove trees and shrubs, or dismantle awnings and patios, depending on your extension plans. Factor in these costs in your estimates so that it doesn’t surprise you. 

    Doors and windows

    Windows and doors should also be factored into your budget as they’re important features that will give your home a distinct look.

    You could choose from double glazed windows, bay windows, or window seats as instead of standard windows, but of course, the cost would differ.


    Protect your home and yourself from any unwanted mishaps with insurance. Speak to your insurance provider on the coverage for home extensions, and if there is a need to top up your premium, do it.

    This would give you peace of mind should there be any unwanted incidents.


    Architects will be able to draw out your renovation plans professionally. They will also be able to give you good advice for your project. However, you’ll have to pay them if you employ their services. 

    Interior design and decor

    Finally, once your beautiful structure is ready, it is time to decorate. But, again, be sure to keep aside some budget for interior decor. 

    House extension cost examples 

    Renovations to different areas of a home would differ in cost as well. Let’s look at some rough estimations depending on the areas:

    Kitchen extension

    The cost here could range from anywhere between $48,000 to $95,000

    Bathroom extension

    You would be looking at the cost of between $6,200 and $15,500

    Room extension 

    Adding on a first room would cost anywhere between $80 to $200 per square foot, while adding on a second-story room would typically cost between $100 to $300 per square foot.

    Home office

    Adding a home office will typically cost about $80 per square foot.

    Living room or family room

    Be ready to have a budget of at least $17,300 to $43,200 for a comfortable 18×12 feet-sized living room.

    Front porch

    Depending on its size and materials, adding a porch could cost between $4,600 to $22,200.

    Do extensions add value to a house? 

    Yes, without a doubt, a home extension will provide a good return of investment especially if it is well structured and done up beautifully.

    Is a small extension worth it? 

    It depends on how small the extension is. But, if you feel that it would add value to your home and make your family happier with that added space, it is worth it.

    Is it cheaper to build up or out? 

    You can opt for these two directions for a house extension – building up or building out. Building up would be your only option when you have a smaller property. It is also usually less expensive unless you need to make major changes to your house structure to support the additional storey. 

    Building out is usually more expensive as it requires a new foundation to be laid and groundwork, if necessary. 

    What size extension can I build without planning permission? 

    Homeowners cannot add an extension or conservatory of up to six or eight meters if their home is detached without obtaining prior permission.

    Always check with your local authorities to be sure before starting any form of extension just to be safe.


    Costs are a major consideration for home extensions. If you’re thinking of renovating your home in San Diego or the Bay Area but not too sure how much it will cost, get in touch with us at Style & Structure. Our team will be happy to make suggestions according to your extension budget. 

    Take a look at some of our previous home remodelling projects in our gallery, and get in touch with us today! 

    For more house extension tips, read ‘Home Extension: All You Need To Know.

    Extend or Move: How Much Does an Extension Cost?

    Disclaimer: This information is general in nature only. While Budget Direct has endeavoured to ensure the information we’ve relied on is accurate and current, we do not guarantee it. Budget Direct accepts no liability for this information.

    When people purchase a home, they tend to consider their current circumstances more than their future requirements.

    They’re focused on their budget, the home’s location, its condition and features. 

    They may not have considered whether they’ll need extra space in the future for children, elderly parents, other family members, etc.

    Eventually, they can be forced to squeeze into a smaller house and share bedrooms and bathrooms, making life uncomfortable. 

    In such cases, there are two options — either move and purchase a bigger house or invest in a home extension.

    There are advantages and disadvantages to both, so you should consider the decision carefully.

    Related article: Post-renovation property valuation

    See all of Budget Direct’s home-improvement guides

    Should you extend or move?

    This decision is usually quite personal and depends on your particular circumstances.

    Some people find it more convenient to move into a new house, while others would rather not move. Here are some reasons why you should consider a home extension:

    You don’t have to move

    Moving can be a long, arduous process that involves selling your home, buying a new one, arranging any finance, switching your children’s school, transferring utilities, physically moving, etc.

    The entire process can be quite stressful. If you choose to extend your home, you’ll avoid that stress of a move.

    You can simply extend your current mortgage or refinance it to fund a new room and renovate your existing home.

    You can modify your property according to your preferences

    With a new home you’ll have to settle for the existing rooms and features and adjust accordingly.

    However, if you extend your existing home, you can create a room and features you want.

    For example, you can choose the size of the room, the design, the materials and other aspects. You won’t have to settle for something that doesn’t tick all your boxes.

    It’s more affordable

    In most cases, an extension is more affordable than a move, particularly when you take into account real estate fees and stamp duty.

    If you have equity in your home, consider refinancing your mortgage to fund the extension.

    You can tailor your extension to your budget.

    Personal attachment

    Most homeowners are emotionally attached to their home and don’t want to move unless they have to.

    By extending instead of moving, you can save yourself the heartache.

    Costs for different types of home extensions

    Home extensions vary along with the cost of them. It’s a good idea to sketch out a rough plan before approaching a building contractor.

    The first thing you need to do is consider your requirements and the architecture of your home. For example, do you want to add another floor — and is this structurally possible?

    Do you just want to convert your basement to a guest room? Do you want to add a room to your property? Do you want to build a room above the garage?

    The answers to these questions will help you and your contractor determine what the extension should look like and how much it will cost.

    Single-storey extensions

    Single-story extensions can cost anywhere between $1,350 per m2 and $2,100 per m2. As well as the floor area, the cost depends on the design and materials.

    According to Domain, the cost of adding an 80m2 ground-floor extension ranges from $164,526 to $310,896.

    Two-storey extensions

    If you want a two-storey extension, you’ll have to add roughly 50% to the cost of a single-story extension.

    For example, if a single-story extension costs $2,100 per m2, you’ll need to add another $1,050 per m2 to the price.

    So it would cost around $3,150 per m2. (This is a conservative estimate.)

    Loft conversion

    Loft conversions can be a pricey because you need to insulate the space, add a secure floor and carry out other alterations to make the space liveable.

    They generally cost around $1,500 to $2,500 per m2 ,depending on your requirements and the amount of work needed.

    New conservatory

    Conservatories have glass windows, roofs and other attachments, which can add to the cost of an extension.

    You’ll need to choose materials that will protect you from the Australian sun and ensure you have a comfortable space.

    The cost of the conservatory depends largely on the size and the materials used, but you can expect it to be anywhere between $5,000 and $30,000 [1].

    Basement conversion

    Basement conversions, especially those that involve excavation, can cost anywhere between $250,000 and $500,000 depending on the size, design and materials [1].

    The higher cost is due to the fact that contractors need to be extra careful not to damage the property above the basement.

    This typically adds to the time it takes to complete the job.

    Garage conversion

    Garage conversions can be affordable because the space already has a roof, four walls, a solid floor and foundation. You just need to make it more comfortable to live in.

    Garage conversions can cost up to $20,000. Again, the bigger it is and the fancier the design and materials, the higher the price [1].

    Cellar conversion

    Cellar conversions can be just as complicated and expensive as basement conversions: $250,000 to $500,000 [1].

    If you already have cellar or basement space, you can exclude the cost of excavation, which will reduce the price significantly.

    If you just need to make cosmetic changes to the cellar, it’s unlikely you’ll spend more than $20,000 [1].

    Bear in mind that all these building cost estimates are averages; they give you only a rough idea of the cost. For an accurate quote, you’ll need to consult a building contractor.

    You should also consider a 10% buffer in your budget, because unexpected expenses can surface.

    Costs to consider

    Regardless of the type of extension you’re getting, there are certain common costs to consider.

    Your building contractor’s quote is likely to divided into several sections, including:


    Heating, cooling and insulation are essential to make your new extended space comfortable to live in.

    You’ll need to factor in the cost of the HVAC (heating, ventilation and air-conditioning) and insulation; without them, the living space will likely be unliveable.

    Consult your local insulation experts for advice.

    Gas and piping

    If you intend to have a bathroom or kitchen in the extended room, you may need to install gas and piping, depending on the type of energy you choose.

    The materials, planning, design and installation will add to the cost of the extension.

    If you just want to use electricity, your extension should require only electrical wiring.

    Consult your local gas fitting experts or electricians to find a custom solution.


    The quantity and quality of the materials will obviously affect the cost of the project.

    Materials like vinyl, timber, flat pack and glass vary in price.

    For example, a single-floor extension using vinyl will cost around $1,350 per m2, while one using timber will cost around $1,500 to $2,100 per m2[1].

    Planning and building

    Planning and building require a lot of effort and time. Designers and architects carefully consider all the variables and create a floor plan.

    Once you approve this plan — which is billed separately — the contractors move in to do the rest of the work.

    One of the major components of the construction cost is labour.

    Roof installation is complicated and requires special expertise, so it’s charged separately.

    If you decide to engage an interior designer, that will be another, separate fee.

    Other costs  include the building permit, insurance, taxes, etc.

    When you receive a quote, check that all expenses are included and there are no hidden costs.

    See all of Budget Direct’s home-improvement guides



    Lucy Xu

    Lucy Xu is a content specialist at Australia’s fast-growing online marketplace Oneflare, connecting consumers with experts within the home improvement and services categories.

    • 8 simple ways to maintain your property value
    • Post-renovation property valuation
    • Tips for renovating your home
    • Industry professional tips for bathroom renovations
    • Industry professional tips for kitchen renovations
    • Industry professional living room renovation tips and ideas
    • Industry professional outdoor living renovation tips
    • 7 easy improvements you can make to your home before selling

    How much have extension costs risen in 2022

    Rising construction costs in the UK are now common knowledge. In the last two years, material shortages and supply chain issues due to the pandemic caused sharp rises in material costs. While this problem has subsided, other factors such as inflation, Brexit and the war in Ukraine have pushed prices up even further. Not only are materials more expensive, labour costs have also increased.

    However, demand for extensions remains high. Most homeowners still know the value in extending and renovating, despite the higher costs. The most important thing is to have realistic expectations from the outset, which will be critical to the success of your project. Many cost articles online have become quickly redundant, so we decided to ask the residential architects on Design for Me for their real-life experience of cost increases in 2022.


    Here at Design for Me, we’ve helped thousands of homeowners all over the UK to find the best architect or designer for their project.

    ✓ Get matched within minutes and see who’s interested
    ✓ Get no obligation quotes
    ✓ It’s completely free.


    Our survey of residential architects in the UK (2022) found that home extension project costs have increased by an average of 30% in the last year.


    Image above by Andreas, architect in North London. See his full profile on Design for Me and shortlist him for your home project here.


    Which items in particular have increased in cost?

    This is interesting to know, to see if you can avoid certain materials or products to reduce project costs. However, most architects we surveyed noted that prices had increased across the board. Others noted price increases in concrete, timber, glazing, insulation, roof tiles, plastering and labour – all of which are commonplace or essential for home extension projects and not easily avoided.


    Extensions – shortages and delays in 2022

    As part of our survey, we asked the architects – ‘Have you experienced any issues relating to availability and lead times, and impact on project timescales?’

    It’s important to be aware of this as you plan your project timescales. The architects reported that they had seen delays for the following:

    • steelwork
    • aluminium doors
    • glazing
    • all timber products
    • contractors generally.

    One architect commented, Glass is still an issue, most builders are now ordering glazing at the start of a project and making openings to suit, rather than the other way round – this can result in some issues!

    However, some architects noted that material supply issues were improving post-pandemic. One architect in Salisbury said supply issues were ‘on and off but getting back to normal’ and another London architect commented they had ‘[not noticed delays] particularly since covid’.

    A couple of architects also reported that the main delays they had experienced were in relation to planning permission or building control, possibly due to a recent increase in the number of projects and enquiries.

    A few architects commented on long waiting lists for contractors. One architect in Brighton said that most contractors are booked up 6-9 months in advance and another in Manchester reported waiting lists over a year long, for most builders.


    Advice from the professionals

    We asked the architects what advice they would give to homeowners starting out on a home extension or renovation project:


    – Be honest about your budget from the start and be flexible with ideal timescales. The market is quite volatile and the best way is to navigate it with patience. Be sensible about the level of renovation and extension required – make best use of the available space without jumping straight into an extension.

    – Be realistic in your budget and cost expectations from the start. Make sure you get a specification or schedule of works for a builder to price as well.

    – Builders may want to exclude fixed costs for materials from their tenders.  

    [if any fixed cost items are excluded from your quotes] be ready to pay for any unexpected increases.

    – Itemise cost plans.

    Allow additional time and an increased contingency.

    – Allow 20% always over planned budget.

    – Keep 20% extra on top of final quotation and allow enough time to get a builder.

    – Place orders well in advance and have a good contingency.

    – [Prioritise] quality over quantity.

    – If you’re relying on finance it’s important to arrange this ahead of time to know what funds will be available.

    – Consider the design and ask builders regarding cost saving options before submitting for planning permission.


    How much does a house extension cost in 2022?

    Based on the recent increases, we’ve updated some of our existing cost articles, which can be found by using the following links:

    House extension costs: https://designfor-me. com/cost-planning/how-much-does-a-house-extension-cost/

    Two storey extension costs:

    Renovation and extension costs in the SE:

    Loft conversions:



    Finding the best architect for your home project…

    Design for Me is a free platform to help you quickly find the right design professional for your home project.

    Once you register your project, we’ll match it with 100s of top architects or architectural designers in your area and beyond. You can see who may be available and eager to work on your project straight away.

    • Quickly see who’s interested in your job
    • Create a shortlist
    • Invite up to three for a no-obligation consultation


    Emily  Design for Me


    Find your perfect design pro within minutes…

    Here at Design for Me we match you with the right design professional, from thousands all over the UK. Get quotes & arrange up to three no obligation consultations. And it’s all completely free! Find out more here or get started below…



    filed under Cost Planning, Extensions.

    How to Cut the Cost of Your Extension Project

    Stay on budget when planning and building your extension with these expert tips for keeping costs down

    Building an extension can be a tricky balancing act between creating a space you love and sticking to a tight budget. However, with some careful planning, you can achieve both. We’ve asked three experts for their essential tips on how you can avoid spiralling costs on your project.

    Professional advice from: Georgie Noone of Complete Home Development; Leena Tulsidas of Build Team; Katie McPhilimey of Probuild360

    This article is from our Most Popular stories file


    Plan ahead
    “Careful planning is key to controlling costs,” says Katie McPhilimey. “It prevents unnecessary expense further down the line.

    “Pay particular attention to mechanical and electrical planning, such as where power outlets and sockets go,” she says. “The cost of moving these around later on in the development often catches people out – and can quickly escalate.”

    Read reviews of design and build professionals in your area.

    Brosh Architects

    Set your own costs
    Georgie Noone recommends you establish your own budget right from the start. “It sounds simple,” she says, “but going into a project with a realistic and affordable self-budget will make everything else that follows easier.”

    Build Team

    Allocate budgets
    “Be very clear in your contractual agreement exactly how much is being allocated to every aspect of the project,” Katie advises. “Even if you haven’t yet chosen the worktop, for example, allocate a budget for it.

    “This not only keeps you focused on your total spend,” she says, “it also helps prevent you from using the money elsewhere – it’s spoken for.”

    Georgie agrees and says, “Once you’ve employed your design and build professional, the exact budget for your project needs to be agreed, in writing.

    “You should be given a full breakdown of costs relating to this budget, as well as a schedule of works, so you know how the project will be run and within what timeframe,” she says. “Once a contract is in place, the design and build professional has to deliver the project on budget and on time.”

    Communicate clearly
    Georgie stresses the importance of communication throughout your extension project. “In my opinion, this is the most crucial point,” she says. “Communication needs to be open and transparent. You want to understand every step, and any potential unavoidable deviations from the original plan.”

    If you’ve employed a project manager, they need to “clearly understand your thought process and react to your changing needs,” she adds. “Any changes normally impact on the budget, so they need to be discussed and agreed in writing.”

    Her advice is to be proactive and inquisitive throughout your project. “Check in frequently, and don’t be afraid to question things,” she says. “This is your extension.”


    Don’t overextend
    We often think bigger is better when planning an extension, but our experts advise caution if you want to stay on budget. “It’s important not to overextend and blow your entire budget on the biggest extension,” Leena Tulsidas says. “You also want to ensure the costs don’t outweigh the profit gained when selling.”

    She recommends you think about maximising your existing space, too. “While extending your property, you should also consider how the rest of your ground floor will be used,” she says. “If you’re likely to be left with unused space, you may want to think about how you can use that area efficiently and incorporate it into your extension.

    David Butler Photography

    Consider the structure
    Leena points out that both the size and design of your extension can impact on structural costs. “If you’re building a large or long extension, you may require much larger steel beams to provide the necessary support. The larger the beams get, the larger the costs,” she says.

    “Speak with your designer or structural engineer to see whether there’s a solution that uses shorter steels, or doesn’t require as many,” she advises. “You can keep this in mind right from the get-go when designing your new space.”

    Trevor Brown Architects

    Choose wisely
    A smart way to stay on budget is to think carefully about which elements you want to spend more on. “There are ways of compromising without necessarily appearing to compromise,” says Katie.

    “For example, you could select a simple, cheaper kitchen cupboard but choose not to compromise on your worksurface, as this will help deliver the wow factor you want,” she says.

    “Trust me,” she adds, “if the worktop is impactful, no one will even notice the cupboard, which is essentially a box below it.”

    Find kitchen fixtures and fittings in the Houzz Shop.

    Work out your windows
    Glazing is another area where you can compromise. “This can be an expensive aspect of the build, so use a mixture of aluminium and uPVC cleverly,” Katie advises. “Bifold doors over a certain size should be aluminium, but windows can be uPVC to keep costs in hand.”

    Leena agrees and says, “It’s key to be realistic with your budget, as glass is more expensive than traditional materials, such as bricks and blockwork, especially when working with large, bespoke sizes.

    “If you’re trying to maximise the amount of glazing while keeping the costs down,” she adds, “look into openings and skylights that come in standard sizes. You’d be surprised at the effect a large roof window can have on your room, and, if finished well, it certainly doesn’t have to look like the budget option.

    Stephen Turvil Architects

    Talk to your neighbours
    If your extension requires consent from your neighbours, it’s worth talking to them right from the start. “Dissent from neighbours can increase the costs, as they’re able to appoint their own independent surveyors, whose costs you will be liable for,” says Leena.

    “You can save money by talking to them about your scheme and understanding any concerns they may have, so you can address them beforehand.”

    Magic Projects London Ltd

    Think long-term
    When you’re working out your budget, also consider any extra outlays that could arise later on. “The price of extending doesn’t only include those immediate design and build costs,” says Leena. “You can save money in the long run by doing things efficiently from the start.”

    She recommends you make sure your contractors are experienced and skilled. “Incompetent builders can leave you with problems later on,” she says, “costing you more than doing it to a high standard the first time.”

    Also consider your energy costs. “Insulating and draughtproofing your home will protect it against heat loss,” Leena says. “Double glazing is also effective for retaining heat, which can save you some money on the heating bills.”

    Lastly, she suggests opting for more energy-efficient appliances. “Although these appliances have a high initial cost, you will most certainly get the return on them,” she says.

    Tell us…
    Are you planning to extend your home? Will you be following any of these tips to stay on budget, or do you have any extra advice of your own? Share your thoughts, ideas and tips in the Comments section.


    Zwickau bis Gera I Wir machen Ihren Garten zum perfekten Erholungsraum


    Zwickau bis Gera I Wir machen Ihren Garten zum perfekten Erholungsraum

    ‎App Store Expense – Expense Tracker

    Screenshots (iPhone)


    Track your income and expenses on your phone

    If you’re looking for the best personal finance statement, this app is for you, and it’s free!

    iSpending helps you keep track of your income and expenses. You can add deals in different categories such as income, food, entertainment. Resumes for today / week / month / year are displayed right on the main page. You can view a detailed report for each month in beautiful graphics and find deals easily with a search. Try it yourself to see more features, you will love it!

    – Add income/expense transactions by different categories
    – Add customized name of expenses category
    – Add transactions quickly
    – Instant summary for today/week/month/year
    – View history records and compare them
    – Schedule report for 1, 3 or 6 months term
    – Separate schedule report for income or expenses only
    – Search by transaction name, amount, notes or any of them
    – Polished user interface, easy to use
    – Support for saving data to iCloud and syncing between devices.
    – Unlock with FaceID

    Send your comments/suggestions to [email protected] or visit our website.

    You can purchase an auto-renewing subscription through an in-app purchase.

    • iSpending Premium subscription will automatically renew every month or year according to the selected duration.

    • Duration 1 month (2.9$9) or 1 year ($29.99)

    • Your subscription will be charged to your iTunes Account at confirmation of purchase and will automatically renew (for the duration you choose) unless auto-renew is turned off at least 24 hours before the end of the current period.

    • The current subscription cannot be canceled during the active subscription period; however, you may manage your subscription and/or turn off auto-renewal by visiting your iTunes Account Settings after purchase.

    • Any unused portion of a free trial period, if offered, will be forfeited when the user purchases a subscription to this publication, where applicable.

    • Privacy policy:

    • Terms of use:

    Ratings and reviews

    Ratings: 97

    Bad job

    After the update, it constantly requires you to connect to iCloud, and this function does not turn off, and tachaidi also does not turn off.

    Paid Application

    Why didn’t they warn you that after 18 positions you will have to pay? I do not recommend downloading.


    How to recover data?
    Accidentally deleted the application altogether
    Downloaded it with a new one and the data was not restored

    The developer of Hana Mobile has indicated that, in accordance with the application’s privacy policy, data may be processed as described below. Detailed information is available in the developer’s privacy policy.

    Data used for tracking information

    The following data may be used to track user information in apps and websites owned by other companies:

    with user data

    The following data may be collected, which is not related to the user’s identity:

    • Identifiers

    • Usage Data

    Sensitive data may be used differently depending on your age, features involved, or other factors. Read more


    Hana Mobile LLC





    © 2012 Hana Mobile LLC


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    Nizhnevartovsky DistrictOfficial website of the administration of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug – Yugra

    • Agro-industrial complex

    • Events poster

    • Religion

    • housing and communal services

    • healthcare

    • Land resources

    • Information policy

    • Speeches and addresses of the Head of the district

    • culture

    • Contests

    • Commission on juvenile affairs

    • Youth policy

    • District news

    • KhMAO News

    • guardianship and guardianship

    • Education

    • ads

    • Working trip

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    • Sport

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    • 90 years of the district

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    • On social media they write. ..

    • Office Information

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    • Decade of childhood

    • Deputy Corps

    • National projects


    1. Vitaliy Rakovets, auditor of AuditIncom LLC

      score 26
      account 44
      score 60
      account 04
      score 97
      Future expenses
      implementation costs
      intangible assets
      cost accounting

      4 (271). An organization incurred the cost of renewing a domain name registration for a year.

      I have the following questions.

      4.1. To what account should these costs be attributed: to account 04 “Intangible assets”, 97 “Deferred expenses” or expense accounts?

      To expense accounts.

      Initial cost of intangible assets |*| is not subject to change, with the exception of cases established by law (clause 17 of the Instruction on Accounting for Intangible Assets, approved by Resolution of the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Belarus No. 25 dated April 30, 2012; hereinafter – Instruction No. 25).

      * Information on registration and lease of a domain name

      The legislation of the Republic of Belarus does not contain the case in question. Therefore, the cost of renewing the registration of a domain name for a year is not charged to account 04 “Intangible Assets”.

      For reference: the initial cost of the website created in the organization, accepted for accounting as an intangible asset, is determined in the amount of the organization’s actual direct and distributable variable indirect costs for the development and preparation of the website for its intended use, including :

      – the cost of hosting a website on an external server;

      – expenses for the initial registration of domain names;

      – the cost of purchased or developed software that ensures the operation of the website;

      – the cost of installing software that ensures the operation of the website;

      – the cost of developing the graphic design of the website;

      – other costs directly related to the development and preparation of the website for its intended use (clause 14 of Instruction No. 25).

      To summarize information on expenses incurred in the reporting period, but related to future periods, account 97 is intended (clause 76 of the Instructions on the procedure for applying a standard chart of accounts of accounting, approved by Resolution of the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Belarus dated June 29, 2011 No. 50; hereinafter – Instruction No. 50).

      Expenses are recognized in accounting in the reporting period in which the corresponding income is recognized, regardless of the date of settlement of them.

      Expenses that cannot be correlated with the income of a certain reporting period are recognized in accounting as expenses of the reporting period in which they were incurred.

      Expenses related to the reporting period are not allowed to be included in deferred expenses reflected on account 97. Clause 32 of the Instruction on Accounting for Income and Expenses, approved by the Decree of the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Belarus dated September 30.2011 No. 102; hereinafter – Instruction No. 102).

      If expenses cause receipt of income during several reporting periods, then these expenses are recognized in accounting by appropriate distribution between the reporting periods (clause 33 of Instruction No. 102).

      Accounting and reporting are based on certain principles (Article 3 of the Law of the Republic of Belarus of July 12, 2013 No. 57-З “On Accounting and Reporting”; hereinafter referred to as the Law).

      The accrual principle means that business transactions are reflected in accounting and reporting in the reporting period in which they are made, regardless of the date of settlement on them (clause 4, article 3 of the Law).

      Expenses under consideration cannot be correlated with income of a certain reporting period. Therefore, they should be reflected in accounting in the reporting period of their implementation:

      Dt 26 “General business costs”, 44 “Expenses for implementation”, etc. – Kt 60 “Settlements with suppliers and contractors”.

      4.2. Can such expenses be taken into account when taxing profits?

      Expenses for the production and sale of goods (works, services), property rights (hereinafter referred to as assets), taken into account for taxation, represent the cost estimate of the natural resources, raw materials, materials, fuel, energy, fixed assets used in the process of production and sale of assets funds, intangible assets, labor resources and other expenses for their production and sale, reflected in accounting (clause 1 of article 130 of the Tax Code of the Republic of Belarus; hereinafter referred to as the Tax Code).

      Such costs are reflected in the reporting period to which they relate (accrual principle), regardless of the time (term) of payment (preliminary or subsequent) (clause 2, article 130 of the Tax Code).

      Thus, in the reporting period of expenses, they will be recognized as expenses for the purposes of profit taxation |*| .

      * Information on the main planned changes to the Tax Code-2019

      score 26
      account 44
      score 60
      account 04
      account 97
      Future expenses
      implementation costs
      intangible assets
      cost accounting

      Foreign Ministry reminded about the absence of expenses for the extension of the nuclear treaty with the United States – RBC


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      Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation

      (Photo: Sergey Bobylev / TASS)

      The extension of the START-3 treaty between the US and Russia will not require additional budget expenditures. This was stated by Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov, speaking at the Federation Council, RIA Novosti reports.

      “I would like to emphasize that the implementation of the relevant federal law on prolongation will not require additional expenditures from the federal budget,” he said.

      On January 26, the presidents of Russia and the United States agreed to extend, on a parity basis, an agreement between the countries on measures to further reduce and limit strategic offensive arms. Later, Vladimir Putin submitted a relevant bill to the State Duma, and on January 27, the Duma and the Federation Council ratified it.

      The contract is extended for a maximum period – until February 5, 2026. The agreement was concluded “without any additions and any “appendages” and takes into account the wishes of Moscow. Previously, the administration of the previous US President Donald Trump proposed to include China in the treaty.


      The implementation of the treaty will contribute to the process of nuclear disarmament, “including allowing it to become multilateral in the future”, stated in the explanatory note (.pdf) to the bill.

      The START-3 Treaty was signed in Prague in 2010 and entered into force on February 5, 2011. Accordingly, its validity expired on February 5, 2021. It provided for the reduction of warheads by both countries to 1550. The number of intercontinental missiles, as well as shells on submarines and strategic bombers, should not exceed 700.

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      total cost of ownership for IT infrastructure

      It is important for a company to know how much money is spent annually on maintaining IT infrastructure. For evaluation, TCO is considered – the total cost of ownership. Let’s figure out what it is and what approaches to counting exist.

      What is TCO, or total cost of ownership

      TCO (Total cost of ownership), or total cost of ownership – the total cost that a company incurs due to the ownership of an asset, such as IT infrastructure.

      When calculating TCO, the main thing is the correct analysis and accounting of all costs. This is especially important when choosing corporate IT systems, which are becoming increasingly complex and include many components.

      As a standard, it is customary to divide costs into two categories: initial and operating costs. Let’s see what applies to each type when it comes to IT infrastructure:

      1. Initial costs – expenses for the purchase, installation and configuration of hardware and software, IT systems.
      2. Operating costs – all subsequent costs. Among them are the renewal of software licenses, the salaries of maintenance personnel, and the costs associated with maintaining equipment.

      After calculating the total cost of ownership for several infrastructure options, you can choose the best one. For example, to understand what is more profitable: to maintain your own data center or transfer data to a cloud platform.

      This is how the formula for calculating TCO looks like

      How to calculate the total cost of ownership of IT infrastructure: two calculation methods

      There is no single approach to calculating TCO – the methodology largely depends on the specifics of the company. But today, two counting methods are most common: the first was proposed by Microsoft and Interpose, the second by the Gartner Group.

      Microsoft and Interpose TCO calculation methodology. According to this model, all costs are divided into two types: direct and indirect. Direct costs are expenses that are usually taken into account when planning a company’s budget.

      What are the direct costs:

      • purchase or rental, implementation, configuration and updating of software;
      • design and administration of systems and networks;
      • maintenance of technical support staff, training of employees, payment for outsourced technical support;
      • development and testing of applications, preparation of technical documentation;
      • creation and maintenance of communication channels.

      With indirect costs, everything is more complicated: as a rule, they are not taken into account when planning a budget. At the same time, more than 50% of companies’ expenses on IT are indirect, according to the Interpose study.

      Which costs are classified as indirect:

      • Informal user training, personal support for key customers of the company. In general, all costs that arise during interaction with users.
      • Costs incurred due to temporary business interruptions. For example, due to a breakdown of equipment or preventive maintenance according to a plan.

      Gartner Group TCO Calculation Method. According to this model, the company’s costs for IT systems are divided into two groups: capital (CAPEX) and operating (OPEX).

      Capital or, in other words, fixed costs, as a rule, arise only once – when you create an IT system. Operating, or current costs – all that arise during further operation.

      The number of operating costs directly depends on the decisions that were made in the company during the implementation of the IT system.

      Capital Expenditures (CAPEX) Operating costs (OPEX)
      Expenses for the development and implementation of the project. Costs incurred when you upgrade or upgrade a system.
      Involvement of consultants in the process of creating a project. Expenses that are necessary to manage the system.
      Purchase, installation, configuration of software and hardware. Expenses caused by the activity of IP users.

      How to take into account costs when calculating TCO for IT infrastructure

      Let’s look at an example of what costs should be taken into account if we want to compare TCO for IT infrastructure hosted in our own data center and on a public cloud platform.

      To make such a comparison, in practice, reduce computing resources to a common denominator – the amount of resources that you get in reality. Resources are selected to provide the same functionality and SLA of the On-premise infrastructure in the cloud. That is, servers, storage systems and other computing resources of the two compared infrastructures must equally meet the requirements of the project.

      Suppose we want to calculate expenses for three years ahead.

      For our own data center in the first year we calculate:

      • data center: placement of equipment or organization of its own server room;
      • server and network equipment, storage systems;
      • everything that is required for information security: crypto-gateways, Firewall and other costs;
      • Internet with connection from several providers;
      • virtualization platform;
      • backup system;
      • software licenses, such as antivirus, Microsoft licenses, and others;
      • disaster tolerance, if necessary, the system is duplicated for two data centers.

      For the next two years, we add 20% to the received cost for each year – about the amount usually pledged for the modernization and repair of server equipment.

      For cloud , they consider the capacity that a company needs to cover all needs. For the next two years, we add 20% to the received value for each year of rent. Approximately so much is laid down for the increase in capacities necessary for the growth of the project.

      But simply by calculating the possible capital and operating costs, we will not know the exact TCO. There are a number of other factors that ultimately affect the total cost of ownership. This is a change in the value of money over time, inflation, the ability to invest free funds. All this is important to consider if you are comparing different options with each other.

      The cost of making a mistake when choosing how to deploy infrastructure, for example in your own data center or in the cloud, can be high, especially for start-up projects.

      How to correctly calculate TCO and what else needs to be taken into account, in addition to the obvious direct and indirect costs of IT systems – see the step-by-step algorithm for calculating TCO.

      Talk about IT business, technology and digital transformation asset ownership.

    2. Total cost of ownership is the sum of initial and operating costs.
    3. After calculating the total total cost of ownership of IP, you can choose the best option for the company.
    4. There is no single approach to calculating TCO, but there are two methods: the first was proposed by Microsoft together with Interpose, the second by Gartner Group.

    Cost executives that may be claimed • Arbitration

    Duration of Claims”, sometimes known as “ Delayed Claims “, are a common feature of construction disputes. Expression “ Extension Claim or Claim Delayed Typically used to describe a monetary claim arising from a delay to project completion. These claims should be distinguished from “ Violation Claim “, which is commonly used to describe a monetary claim in circumstances where a piece of work has been interrupted without affecting the completion date of the project.

    Delays can be divided into four main categories – « excusable delays ”, “ unjustified delays ”, “ compensable delays ” and “ non-compensated delays ”. [1] Excusable delays” are those for which the contractor may be exempted due to the act or omission of the employer, such as late production of design drawings.

    Unreasonable delays ” Are those that arise as a result of the contractor’s own actions, omissions or inaction, such as, for example, when the contractor does not provide sufficient labor to complete the project on time or fails to provide equipment.

    Eligible delays can be further divided into “ compensable ” and “ Non-compensable Delays. Only “ Excuse ” and “ Compensable ” delays entitle the detained party to monetary compensation for the period of delay. [2]

    A basic common law principle, which is similar in many civil law systems, is that any claim for damages and expenses is recoverable either on the basis of contractual provisions for the recovery of these items, or, in the absence of such conditions, as a general claim for damages for breach of contract, on a distance test as set out in Hadley v Baxendale (1854). [3] The “ distance test ” was set by Alderson B at Hadley v. Baxendale (1854), as follows:[4]

    The damage … must be such as can fairly and reasonably be dealt with as arising naturally, i.e., in accordance with the ordinary course of things, from such a violation of the contract itself, or such as may reasonably be assumed in the contemplation of both parties, in the time they made the contract, as a likely result of its breach.”

    There is no such thing as a standard “one size fits all” format for delay claims. Each claim depends on the individual facts of a particular case or project.

    However, the starting point for evaluating an extension claim in any delay analysis should be “ for which period is the contractor entitled to pay ?”.[5] This is due to the fact that the amount of the right to extend the costs depends on the actual costs..

    After the time period has been determined, the second step is to determine which cost managers the delayed party is entitled to reimburse. Most of the claims due to delay and breakdown are divided into one or more of the following chapters:

        1. Additional costs
        2. percentage and financial fees
        3. Loss of productivity
        4. 9
        5. Site overheads
        6. “Head office” Falled costs
        7. Profit loss

    This list is not exhaustive and depends on the jurisdiction under consideration.

    Overhead costs are an important element of delay claims and are sometimes controversial. For overheads, it is important to demonstrate that the declared overheads are additional and/or that they could be deployed elsewhere if there were no problems with the project.[7] Overhead costs can be broadly divided into the following categories:

      1. Overhead and site creation which can be identified through daily reports and diaries;
      2. Head office overheads which are incidental costs of running the contractor’s business as a whole and include indirect costs, or costs that cannot be directly attributed to production. They may also include items such as rent, rates, directors’ salaries, pension fund contributions, and audit fees;[8]

    Finally, a contractor’s claim for loss or expense may include funding costs, in which case it is important to show that there was enough work to be rejected due to delays in a particular project. also, it must be shown that all components of the claim satisfy one of the two sides of the distance criterion, as set out in Hadley v. Baxendale .[9]

    [1] J. Keane & A. F. Caletka, Analysis of delay in construction contracts (2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd), p. 6.

    [2] p. Gibson, Construction Delays, Extensions and Claim Extensions (2008, Routledge), para 218.

    [3] Hadley v. Baxendale (1854) 9 ex 341, 23 LJ Ex 179; 23 LT(THE) 69, 2 WR 302.

    [4] Hadley v. Baxendale (1854) 9 Exch 341, 354.

    [5] p. Gibson, Construction Delays, Extensions and Claim Extensions (2008), para.