Cil self build exemption: Community Infrastructure Levy – Self-build homes

Self Build Exemption – Whole House – Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) – Southend-on-Sea City Council

There are three types of self build exemption:

  • self build exemption – for a whole house
  • self build exemption – for a residential annexe
  • self build exemption – for a residential extension

The exemptions apply to anybody who is building, or commissioning, their own home, residential extension or residential annex. Individuals claiming the exemption must own the property and intend to live in it as owner-occupier for a minimum of 3 years following completion.

Whole house

You can apply for exemption from CIL if you are building your own home, and intend to live in it as the owner-occupier.

To make a claim, you must:

  • assume liability to pay CIL
  • certify that the scheme will meet the criteria to qualify as self build development (using Form 7 Part 1)
  • submit a Commencement Notice, before development commences
  • within 6 months of completion, send us evidence to confirm the project is self build (using Form 7 Part 2)

Form 7 Self Build Exemption Claim Form Part 1 is available below. Within six months of completing your home, you must supply further supporting information on Form 7 Self Build Exemption Claim Form Part 2. This provides the evidence to confirm the project is self build.

The evidence must comprise:

  • proof of the date of completion (building completion notice, compliance certificate),
  • proof of ownership (a copy of the title deeds), and
  • proof of occupation as your main residence (Council tax certificate, utility bills, bank statement, electoral roll).

In addition, you must also provide a copy of one of the following:

  • an approved claim from HMRC under VAT431C – VAT refunds for DIY housebuilders
  • specialist self build warranty
  • approved self build mortgage from a bank or building society

The forms are available using the links below:

  • View and download Form 7: Self build exemption claim form Part 1
  • View and download Form 7: Self build exemption claim form Part 2

Full details of what is required can be found on the forms. If this evidence is not submitted to the Council within the 6 month time period, the full levy charge becomes payable.

Important note

It is important that you don’t begin work until you submit your application for exemption and you receive notice from us with a decision. If you start any work, including digging foundations, your application for exemption will be refused.

If you fail to submit a Commencement Notice before starting any work, then we will charge the full amount for CIL.

If you fail to submit the correct evidence on completion, then we will charge the full amount of CIL.

If you receive exemption, and then sell, or rent out, your home within 3 years of the house being completed, we will charge you the full CIL amount. CIL is registered as a land charge and so if any of these disqualifying events occur within three years, we can revoke exemptions and the levy will then be due.

We can also impose surcharges, in addition to the full CIL charge.

Disqualifying events

Where relief is applied, the CIL chargeable amount, and amount of relief granted, will be kept on the land charges register for 3 years following completion.

If a disqualifying event occurs, you must notify the Council in writing within 14 days of the event. If this is not done, a surcharge will be applied in addition to the levy. A copy of the notification must be sent to all owners of material interests in the relevant land. Where the necessary evidence is not supplied on completion, the Council will give you at least 28 days to submit the forms and evidence before taking further action.

Definition of completion

Completion is defined as the issuing of a compliance certificate under Regulation 16 of the Building Regulations 2010 (completion certificate) or Section 51 of the Building Act 1984 (final certificate).


You have the right to appeal against a grant of exemption under Regulation 116A and 116B. Appeals should be made to the Valuation Office Agency. Further information can be found through the Appeals page.

State aid

Self build exemptions cannot be granted if they would constitute a notifiable state aid.

CIL/S106 Exemptions – Self Build Portal

How CIL works

Different councils charge different levels of CIL while some don’t charge it at all. Charges vary from £10/m2 to £575/m2.

The tax is paid by the developer and the charging point is the commencement of construction as set out in section 56(4) of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 – broadly accepted as the point at which some limited works begin on site to implement a planning permission. This includes demolition and other minor groundworks, the digging of trenches, laying of pipes and changes to the use of the land.

Find out more on the Planning Portal.

The money raised by the CIL charge is used to fund a wide range of local infrastructure costs such as flood defences, schools, hospitals and other health and social care facilities, parks, green spaces and leisure centres.

Any new build house, flat or an extension of more than 100 square metres gross internal floor space is likely to incur a CIL charge (where a council has introduced the CIL regime).

Self and Custom Build CIL Exemption

The amended regulations came into force in March 2014 but allowed for a CIL exemption for self builders building either a new dwelling, an annex to an existing dwelling or an extension to an existing dwelling intended to be your principal private residence. While this is good news for Self Builders, there are caveats and the procedure to claim exemption must be followed precisely (see diagram below).

CIL exemption – the process

Any exemption must be granted prior to the commencement of the development or the full exemption will not be applied. You will usually need to advise the local planning authority before commencement, so be sure to seek agreement to the formal claim for exemption before starting any work on site.

Individuals wishing to claim an exemption must first ‘assume liability’ for CIL by completing a form, and then apply for the exemption by completing a Transfer of Assumed Liability’ form and submitting it to the council (ie. the ‘collecting authority’) and certifying that their project meets the qualifying criteria by submitting a ‘Self Build Exemption Claim Form – Part 1’.

To secure the full exemption you must apply before you have commenced ANY work, and it is essential that the local authority is notified of the intention to commence the development by submitting a ‘Commencement Notice’ to the council prior to work commencing on site. 

Previously, failure to do this meant the full CIL would be payable, but following lobbying work by NaCSBA, in 2019 amendments were made that allowed for late submission – in which case the the charge will be limited to a 20% surcharge. See paragraph 7.7 of the THE COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE LEVY (AMENDMENT) (ENGLAND)
(No. 2) Regs 2019 for details. This was because many self builders were missing the deadline and were getting landed with huge bills.

On completion they must submit an ‘Exemption Claim Form – Part 2’ to the council which provides supporting evidence to confirm the project qualifies for relief (this must be done within six months of formal completion of the home).

Timing is critical and the process must be followed precisely to secure the full levy exemption.

The key documents and forms you need can be found on the Planning Portal, together with guidance as to how to apply for a self build exemption:

  • Self Build Notice of Commencement Form 6
  • Self Build Exemption Claim Form 7 (Part 1 when making the application, Part 2 on completion)
  • Self Build Residential Annex Exemption (Form 8)
  • Self Build Residential Extension Exemption (Form 9)

Serviced plots

If buyers are to benefit from the very substantial value of the CIL exemption for custom and self build, developers of serviced plots must apply for a phased planning permission with each plot constituting a separate phase to ensure that commencement on one part of the site does not trigger the application of CIL on the whole development.

Raise this point with the developer or enabler to confirm they are following the correct process to allow you to secure the exemption.

Government guidance on CIL

Guidance on the CIL exemption is also set out in Government guidance, noticeably The Planning Portal which states the following: houses, flats, residential annexes and residential extensions which are built by ‘self builders’ where an exemption has been applied for and obtained, and, in regard to a self build home or a residential annex, a Commencement (of development) Notice served prior to the commencement of the development (see regulations 42A, 42B, 54A, 54B and 67(1A), inserted by the 2014 Regulations)
Find out more about the Government’s position. 

Three year payback rule

It’s important to note that there is a three-year ‘clawback’ arrangement, so if your personal circumstances change and the property is sold within the first three years you must notify the council and the full CIL levy becomes payable. Failure to notify the council will result in enforcement action and surcharges become payable.

Also, if any exempted annex is used other than as part of a single dwelling, is let out or sold (unless as part of the main dwelling and to the same purchaser) then the full levy due will be payable.

CIL Exemptions and Relief –

Does my development qualify for an exemption or relief? 

Exemption or relief can only be claimed if the claimant is an owner of a material interest in the relevant land.
Information on each exemption and relief can be found below, with links to the forms that need to be returned to us:

  • charitable relief

  • social housing relief

  • exemptions for minor development

  • exemptions for self-build housing, extensions and annexes

  • exceptional circumstances relief

Further charity and/or social housing relief

Further exemption claim

Phase credit application – (seek guidance before submitting this form – this only relates to a planning application granted before a charging schedule came into force)

Charitable relief

Development proposals owned by charities are exempt from CIL if they meet certain criteria.
The owner of a material interest in the land is exempt if they are a charitable institution and the chargeable development will be used, wholly or mainly, for charitable purposes.

To qualify for any charitable relief, a charitable institution is defined as:

The above does not apply where:

  • that part of the chargeable development to be used for charitable purposes will not be occupied by or under the control of a charitable institution

  • the material interest is owned by the aforementioned owner jointly with a person who is not a charitable institution or

  • exemption of the owner from liability to pay CIL would constitute a State aid.

    Relief must be applied for before the commencement of the development to which it relates.

Further charity relief information

Claim Charitable Relief
Further Charitable Relief: Form 12

Social Housing Relief

Development proposals which comprise qualifying social dwellings (in whole or in part) are eligible for relief from liability to CIL.

To qualify for relief, the claimant must own a material interest in the relevant land (the area granted planning permission) and have assumed liability to pay the levy for the whole chargeable development. To support the application, a signed S106 Agreement detailing the social housing provision for the relevant planning permission should be available or, where not, a completed and signed Affordable Housing Unilateral Undertaking.

A claim for this relief must be made by submitting a CIL Claiming Exemption or Relief form to us before commencement of the development. A claim for relief will lapse if the chargeable development to which the claim relates is commenced before the collecting authority has notified the claimant of its decision on the claim.

When applying for social housing relief, please state which criteria of Regulation 49 you are meeting and applying under.

Further information can be found in the CIL Relief document.

Further social housing information

Claim Social Housing Relief
Further Social Housing Relief: Form 12

Exemptions for minor development

Development which creates one or more new dwellings will be charged CIL irrespective of the floorspace created.

Development proposals which create less than 100 square metres of gross internal area of new build (such as residential extensions less than 100 square metres of new build) will be exempt from CIL and will not be charged.

Exemptions for self-build residential dwellings, extensions or annexes

Development proposals for residential extensions, annexes or dwellings that are being self-built may be exempt from paying CIL.

All applications must be received and have a formal decision issued by us before commencement of the development.

Claim Self-Build Exemption: Form 7 Part 1

 (to be submitted and approved before development starts)

Claim Self-Build Exemption: Form 7 Part 2

 (to be submitted within six months of completing the self-build dwelling)

Claim Self-Build Annex Exemption: Form 8
Claim Self-Build Extension Exemption: Form 9
Further Exemption Claim: Form 13

Visit the Planning Portal for more information on the self-build exemption.

Exceptional circumstances relief

Relief in exceptional circumstances may be granted where a specific scheme cannot afford to pay the levy. However it must meet the following conditions that are set out in Regulation 55 as amended by the 2013 and 2014 Regulations:

  • a section 106 agreement must exist on the planning permission permitting the chargeable development and

  • we, as the charging authority must consider that paying the full levy would have an unacceptable impact on the development’s economic viability and

  • the relief must not constitute a notifiable state aid.

A statement [PDF, size unavailable], confirming that we offer such relief, has been issued in compliance with Regulation 56.

It should be noted that we have undertaken viability assessments to carefully consider the level at which the proposed CIL charges have been set, taking into account the provision of affordable housing at up to 40% and development-specific S106 obligations. In view of this, it is important to note that consideration for relief will be rare and any relief given must be done in accordance with the procedure stated above and state aid rules.

Further exceptional circumstances information

Claim Exceptional Circumstances Relief

Community uses

The Huntingdonshire Community Infrastructure Levy Charging Schedule 2012 includes a charge for ‘community uses’. It is important to understand that the CIL rate of £0 per square metre for community uses only refers to development types within the following classes and must also be provided by the not-for-profit, public or charitable sectors:

  • D1 (non-residential institutions – except health uses) planning use class: crèches, day nurseries, non-residential education and training centres, museums, public libraries, public halls, exhibition halls, places of worship, law courts, and

  • D2 (assembly and leisure) planning use class: assembly and leisure cinemas, concert halls, bingo halls, dance halls, swimming baths, skating rinks, gymnasiums, other areas for indoor and outdoor sports or recreations not involving motorised vehicles or firearms.

Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL)

  • CIL Process and Forms

    • CIL Payments

    • CIL Calculator

    • CIL Exemptions and Relief

    • CIL Privacy Notice

Exemption for self build properties – Broadland and South Norfolk

The following exemptions are available to:

  • anybody who is building their own home or have commissioned a home from a contractor, house builder or sub-contractor. Individuals claiming the exemption must own the property and occupy the property as their sole or main residence
  • community group self build projects also qualify for the exemption where they meet the required criteria

You can apply for a self build exemption at any time, as long as the development has not commenced.

The chargeable amount (the levy that would have been payable if the exemption had not been granted) will be registered as a ‘local land charge’ on self-build houses for three years from completion.

Self build exemptions can be withdrawn if a disqualifying event occurs.

Applicants wishing to claim must take two steps before commencing their development.

Firstly, you must assume the liability to pay the CIL levy in relation to the development. This is done by completing the Assumption of Liability form. If liability has already been assumed by another person, you must complete a Transfer of Assumed Liability form and submit this to the council.

Secondly, you must certify that the scheme will meet the criteria to qualify as a ‘self build’ development. You must submit a Self Build Exemption Claim Form (Form 7 – Part 1) to the council. At this stage, the applicant must confrim that they understand:

  • the claim for self build exemption will lapse where development commences prior to the council informing them of their decision    
  • if the CIL Liability notice was issued prior to 1 September 2019, the claim for exemption will lapse if you fail to provide the council with a Commencement Notice prior to commencement of the development
  • if the CIL Liability notice was issued after 1 September 2019, a surcharge equal to 20% of the CIL charge or £2500, whichever is the lower, will be payable if you fail to provide the council with a Commencement Notice prior to commencement of the development
  • they will be liable for the full CIL charge if you do not complete and provide Part 2 of the Self Build Exemption claim form (Form 7) along with the requested supporting information within six months of the Compliance Certificate being issued
  • the meaning of disqualified event for the exemption and where a disqualifying event occurs before or after commencement you will inform the council within 14 days

Evidence required on completion

You will need to provide copies of the following items:

  • Compliance certificate for this development issued under either: regulation 17 (completion certificates) of the Building Regulations 2010 or Section 51 of the Building Act 1984 (final certificates)
  • Title deeds of the property to which this exemption relates (including the plan referred to in the title deeds)
  • Council Tax bill or certificate

You will also need to supply copies of two of the following items showing your name and the address of the property:

  • utility bill
  • bank statement
  • local electoral roll registration   

You will also need to provide one of the following:

  • an approved claim from HM Revenue and Customs under VAT431: VAT refunds for DIY Housebuilders
  • proof of a specialist self build or custom build warranty for the development
  • proof of an approved self build or custom build mortgage from a bank or building society for your development 

What is a self build warranty?

A Self Build Warranty is a warranty and Certificate of Approval issued by a warranty provider, which provides a ‘latent defects insurance’ policy and which is accompanied by certified Stage Completion Certificate, issued to the owner/occupier of the home.

What is a self build mortgage?

A Self Build Mortgage is an approved mortgage arranged to purchase land and/or fund the cost of erecting a house where the loan funds are paid out to the owner/occupier in stages as the building works progress to completion.

Multi-unit schemes

For multi-unit schemes (for example, where a builder sells serviced plots or a community group works with a developer), applicants should consider applying for a phased planning permission, to allow each plot to be a separate chargeable development. This will prevent the charge being triggered for all plots within the wider development as soon as development commences on the first dwelling. This will also ensure that if a disqualifying event occurs affecting one unit, it does not trigger a requirement for all to repay the exemption. Schemes can be ‘phased’ for levy purposes even if they do not benefit from ‘outline’ planning permission.

Is self build communal development covered by this exemption?

Self build communal development benefits from the levy exemption if it is for the use of the occupants of more than one self build home. Such development may include, for example, shared facilities or guest accommodation. An exemption from the levy will not be granted to communal development for the use of the general public or for commercial development such as a retail unit.

How is the amount of exemption for self build communal development calculated?

The self build communal development exemption is calculated using the formula in Regulation 54A. The gross internal area of the communal development is apportioned to the individual self build units on the site, based on the gross internal floor space of the self build dwellings.

Back to the top

Community Infrastructure Levy

The Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) is a charge which allows the Council to raise funds from new developments for use on infrastructure to support the growth of the District. It came into force on 6 April 2010 through the Community Infrastructure Levy Regulations 2010. The money collected from the levy will be used to support development by funding infrastructure that the Council, local community and neighbourhoods need.

The levy will apply to most new buildings and development over 100 square metres in size. Charges will be based on the size, type and location of the new development and are set out in the Charging Schedule.

Three Rivers’ CIL Charging Schedule was adopted by a decision of Full Council on 24 February 2015. It came into force on 1 April 2015. You can download the Adoption Notice and the Adopted CIL Charging Schedule below:

Charging Schedule (pdf)

Instalments Policy (pdf)

Regulation 123 List (pdf)

Adoption Notice (pdf)


The Draft Charging Schedule and key documents were examined by Mr Philip Staddon Bsc, Dip, MBA, MRTPI. He concluded that, subject to modifications, the Draft Charging Schedule formed an appropriate basis on which to introduce a Levy. His report on our CIL can be located below:

Inspector’s Report (pdf)

A complete set of Examination documents can be viewed here


We published a Statement of Modifications to the Draft Charging Schedule and associated CIL documents on 3 October 2014. Copies of the proposed modifications were sent to each of the persons invited to make representations on the Draft Charging Schedule and were deposited at the Council offices and at the District’s libraries. The Statement of Modifications can be viewed here.

Setting the Community Infrastructure Levy charge

The Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) charging rate must be set based on evidence of an infrastructure need, for which there must be a deficit in funding, and on the basis of evidence on the economic viability of bringing forward a proposal for development within the District. The evidence supporting the charging schedule can be viewed here.

Information regarding your CIL application:

Please note:


It is a requirement under Regulation 67(1), of The Community Infrastructure Levy Regulations 2010 (as amended) that CIL FORM 6 (COMMENCEMENT NOTICE) MUST BE COMPLETED, returned AND acknowledged by Three Rivers District Council BEFORE BUILDING WORKS START so as to avoid surcharges being imposed.


Step 1

All planning applications, including those for Lawful Development Certificates, must have the CIL additional information form submitted alongside them (see below). We require this additional information to determine whether a charge is due, to determine the amount of CIL payable and to ascertain whether relief is being requested. The CIL guidance note provides advice on how to fill in the CIL additional information form.

Application forms for CIL to be submitted with your planning application:

  • CIL Form 1 Additional Questions Form
  • CIL additional questions guidance note

If this form is not submitted your planning application will be deemed invalid.

Step 2

The following CIL forms should be completed and returned where necessary:

CIL form 2 – Assumption of liability

This form must be completed and is required to assume liability for the payment of CIL, or to claim for relief or exemption, including self-build exemption.

CIL form 3 – Withdrawal of assumption of liability

This form is required if you have previously assumed liability to pay CIL but will no longer be the party making the payment.

CIL Form 4 – Transfer of assumed liability

This form is required to transfer the responsibility for paying CIL between parties. It must be used if the person who assumed liability using form 1 (Assumption of Liability) will no longer be paying CIL, but has already agreed with another party that they shall be paying instead.

CIL Form 5 – Notice of chargeable development

This form is required to give us as charging authority notice of work which may be liable for CIL being carried out under General Consent / Permitted Development rights.

CIL Form 6 – Commencement notice

Once planning permission is granted but BEFORE any works start:

With the exception of residential extensions that have been granted relief, please note it is a requirement under Regulation 67(1) of The Community Infrastructure Levy Regulations 2010 (as amended) that a Commencement Notice MUST be submitted to the collecting authority no later than the day before the day on which the chargeable development is to be commenced.

In ALL cases (other than residential extensions that have been granted relief) you must complete and return this form informing the council of the commencement date before a development which is CIL liable can start. It is a requirement under Regulation 67(1) of The Community Infrastructure Levy Regulations 2010 (as amended) that this form MUST be submitted to the collecting authority no later than the day before the day on which the chargeable development is to be commenced.

Do not start your development until ‘Acknowledgement of Receipt of Commencement Notice’ has been received from the council. Failure to await receipt means you will lose the right to payment by instalments (where applicable) and a surcharge will be imposed.

Relief for self-builders and domestic extensions

In February 2014 the government introduced exemption from CIL for self-builders. Under this system, anyone who is extending their own property, or building a new property to occupy as their primary residence, can claim relief from CIL. Please note this is not an automatic process and must be applied for, BEFORE work starts on site. You must also assume liability for the development and send us a CIL Commencement Notice if you are building a new property, as explained above, BEFORE work starts in order for the exemption to be considered.

CIL Form 7 – Self build exemption claim Form (part 1)

This form is used to make a claim for self build exemption when a new dwelling is being constructed. This should be used when the dwelling is going to be your primary residence on completion for at least three years – please also pay attention to the declarations in section B of the form.

CIL Form 7 – Self build exemption claim Form (part 2)

This form is to be used in conjunction with Form 7 (part 1) for schemes where self build exemption has been granted for new dwellings. It must be submitted to us within six months of completion of the build, accompanied by the supporting evidence set out in the form, which includes completion certificate, utility bills, bank statements or similar showing the property address, self-build mortgage or similar.

CIL Form 8 – residential annex exemption claim Form

This form must be used to claim for self build exemption when the work being carried out is the creation of a residential annex to be used as ancillary accommodation to the main dwelling.

CIL Form 9 – residential extension exemption claim Form

This form is to be used to claim self build exemption when the work being carried out is a domestic extension which has a gross internal floor area of more than 100 square metres (extensions with a gross internal area of less than 100 square metres are exempt from CIL)

CIL Form 10 – Charitable and/or Social Housing Relief Claim Form

This form is required to claim exemption or relief for social / affordable housing or developments by registered charities for charitable use.

Form 11: Exceptional Circumstances Relief Claim Form

Not applicable For Three Rivers District Council

Form 12: Claiming further charitable or social housing relief (when development is altered)

This form should be used by persons seeking to obtain further charitable or social housing relief from the levy when the development previously subject to relief is subsequently amended by a section 73 permission, creating a new levy liability.

Form 13: Claiming further self-build dwelling, residential annex or residential extension exemption

This form should be used by persons seeking to obtain further exemption from the levy when the development previously granted an exemption is subsequently amended by a section 73 permission, creating a new levy liability.

Form 14: Application to apply a ‘phase credit’

This form must be used by a person who has assumed liability for a phase of a development which was originally granted planning permission before the adoption of a levy charging schedule in the area, but which is now subject to a levy liability, who wishes to apply a ‘phase credit’, created in a separate phase of the development, to offset the levy liability.

Useful Information

  • Please provide the following information for agent (if applicable) and applicant: address, telephone number, email address
  • Although notices are usually served by the Agent (if one is appointed) CIL Liability lies with the applicant. It is the Agents responsibility to ensure the applicant is kept up to date and is in receipt of relevant forms, documents, and notices sent from the Council.

Does Inflation affect CIL Charges?

Charging authorities are required to apply an annually updated index of inflation to keep the levy responsive to market conditions. Click on the link below for further information: 

Yearly CIL Rates Table (pdf)


Is my development CIL Liable?

A development will be liable to pay CIL if:

  • It is of a type and location for which a rate has been set in the Charging Schedule;
  • It is a building into which people normally go;
  • It is creating 1 or more new dwellings, or an annex, even where the floorspace is less than 100 square metres;
  • If it involves the change of use of a building that has been unused for a period of time, it may be liable.

A development may be exempt from paying CIL if:

  • The development is less than 100 square metres, unless it is a new dwelling or annex. In this case, the levy will be payable;
  • Is eligible for self-build exemption and the relevant claim form has been submitted and acknowledged;
  • It is for a structure or building into which people do not usually go, such as pylons, wind turbines; or go into only intermittently for maintenance, such as plant rooms;
  • A change of use with no additional floorspace and the former use has been lawful and in continuous use for a period of at least six months over the past three years ending on the day the planning permission first permits the development;
  • The development is a change of use from a single dwelling to two or more separate dwellings with no additional floorspace;
  • The development is for affordable housing, charitable purposes or it is self-build housing. If your proposed development is for any of these purposes, please note that you will be required to formally apply for CIL relief.

What is the gross internal area (floorspace)?

  • GIA is taken from the RICS guidance and includes:
    • Areas occupied by internal walls and partitions (e. g. a roof plus three walls)
    • Columns, piers, chimney breasts, stairwells, lift-wells, other internal projections, vertical ducts etc.
    • Atria and entrance halls
    • Internal, open-sided balconies, walkways etc.
    • Mezzanine floor areas with permanent access
    • Service accommodation such as toilets, toilet lobbies, bathrooms, showers, and changing-rooms, cleaner’s rooms etc.
    • Garages and conservatories
  • GIA excludes:
    • Perimeter wall thickness and external projections
    • External, open-sided balconies, covered walkways and fire escapes
    • Greenhouses, garden stores, fuel stores etc.
    • Areas with headroom less than 1.5m

Will I have to pay CIL when building an extension to my property?

If you are building an extension to your property, you may not be required to pay CIL if:

  • The main dwelling is your principal residence
  • The extension enlarges the principal residence but the addition is under 100 square metres in size.

I am building an annex; will I have to pay CIL?

If you are building a residential annex to create a new dwelling within the grounds of your main dwelling, you may not be required to pay CIL provided that you meet the following criteria:

  • The main dwelling is your principal residence and you have a material interest in it.
  • The residential annex is wholly within the curtilage of the main dwelling and comprises of one new dwelling.

The full CIL amount will be payable within three years of completion if:

  • The main house is used for any purpose other than as a single dwelling, or
  • The annex is let, or,
  • Either the main residence or the annex, are sold separately from the other.

If I am building my own ‘self-build’ property; will I have to pay CIL?

Self-build homes are exempt from CIL, subject to various criteria. The category of ‘Self-build’ applies to anyone who is building their own home or has commissioned their home from a contractor, house builder or sub-contractor.

  • Upon completion you must own the property and occupy it as your principal residence for a minimum of three years after the development is completed. If within the first three years you sell or rent the property out, or stop using it as your main dwelling, you must notify the Council within 14 days of the sale/rent. The CIL chargeable amount which was originally waived will then be payable in full. Failure to notify the Council that you wish to sell/rent your dwelling will result in enforcement action.

Is a change of use liable for CIL?

If a building has not been in continuous lawful use for a period of at least six months over the past three years ending on the day the planning permission first permits development the development will be liable for CIL.

However, if the building has been in continuous lawful use for a period of at least six months over the past three years ending on the day the planning permission first permits development, the development will only be liable for CIL if there is additional new build floorspace.

Will my development be liable to pay CIL if planning permission was granted before the CIL Charging Schedule came into effect, but an approval of a Section 73 application to vary or remove conditions of that planning permission is made after the CIL Charging Schedule came into effect?

  • Yes. If full planning permission is granted before publication of a CIL Charging Schedule, but an approval of a S.73 application to vary or remove conditions is made after publication of the CIL Charging Schedule, the approval does trigger a liability to pay CIL because it results in a new planning permission. However, although a new CIL liability is triggered, the new additional chargeable amount is equal only to the net increase in the chargeable amount arising from the original planning permission, so as to avoid double counting of liability. In effect, if the application to vary a condition does not result in an increase in floorspace then there will be no charge.

If my development does not require planning permission, will I still be liable to pay CIL?

  • Development commenced under ‘general consent’ may be liable to pay CIL. If you intend to develop under ‘general consent’ you must complete a ‘Notice of Chargeable Development’. The standard criteria for determining whether you will pay CIL will then apply.

The date of commencement has changed. Do I need to tell you?

  • YES. The Council will issue a Demand Notice based on your commencement date, so if this changes, you need to let us know BEFORE commencement. You are required to re-submit a new commencement notice with the new date, we will then acknowledge with a new commencement notice.

Can existing buildings that will be demolished be discounted from the CIL charge?

  • The gross internal floorspace of any existing buildings on site that are going to be demolished or reused may be deducted from the calculation of CIL liability, providing that the building has been in continuous lawful use for at least six months over the past three years ending on the day the planning permission first permits development.


What happens if I don’t pay the CIL charges?

  • CIL is a mandatory and non-negotiable planning charge and there are penalties and surcharges for non-payment, including the option to pay by instalment being automatically withdrawn. There are also strong enforcement powers, including Stop Notices, surcharges and prison terms.

Can I appeal against your decision on the chargeable amount?

  • You can appeal against the Council’s decision in relation to your CIL liability, but please note that appeals must be made within 60 days of the Liability Notice being issued, and appeals can only be made after you have formally asked us to recalculate the CIL amount (which must be done within 28 days).

You can also appeal against the apportionment of liability, charitable relief, self build exemptions, surcharges, commencement of development and a Stop Notice. Further information and the relevant forms can be found on the GOV. uk website below:

Is CIL a local land charge?

  • CIL is a legally enforceable levy which is shown as a local land charge on the local land charges register.

Please note the information above is not exhaustive and further information can be found on the Planning Portal web link:

You can view further details about the planning application process and CIL via the Planning page.

Monitoring reports are available to download from the CIL Reports page.


Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) – Right to Build Toolkit


  • Private homebuilders are exempt from the Community Infrastructure Levy and there is a clear process they need to follow to benefit from this
  • Phased planning permissions are a key to tool to effectively deliver the levy exemption on multi-home projects
  • Councils can help private homebuilders to understand how the exemption works and they should engage positively with developers to apply the exemption to larger projects


The Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) enables councils in England and Wales to raise funds to support the development of their areas by imposing a charge or ‘levy’ per square metre on new development, including housing. The charge applies to all new homes and any development, extension of refurbishment that creates net additional floorspace of more than 100 sq m.

The Levy can be used to fund infrastructure such as flood defences, schools, hospitals and other health and social care facilities, parks, green spaces and leisure centres.

As of July 2015, almost one in three councils had adopted a CIL charge. The scale of the charges varies widely but £75-£100 per sq m appears to be an approximate national average.

Private homebuilders are exempt from paying CIL under the Community Infrastructure Levy (Amendment) Regulations 2014.


This is one of many Briefing Notes that explain resourcing, planning, land, finance, demand, marketing, consumer support and various technical issues. To see the full range of guidance click here.


For the purposes of this Toolkit we have made the following definitions:

Click here to open/close

  • ‘self and custom built homes’ are properties commissioned by people from a builder, contractor or package company (this is known as ‘custom build’ housing). When people physically build themselves, sometimes with help from sub-contractors, this is known as ‘self build’ housing. We call all these people ‘private homebuilders’.
  • ‘serviced building plots’ are shovel-ready parcels of land with planning permission, laid out and ready for construction with access and utilities/services provided to the plot boundary. Some private homebuilders just purchase a plot; others opt for a ‘shell’ home (that they then finish off), or they select from an extensive menu of options offered by developers/builders.
  • ‘group projects’ mean homes built by private homebuilders who work as a collective.

Statutory definitions are provided in section 9 of the Housing and Planning Act 2016 section 9  which amends the Self-build and Custom Housebuilding Act 2015.


This Briefing Note will be revised when the Regulations to support the commencement of the Self-build and Custom Housebuilding Act 2015 and the Government’s Right to Build policy are finalised.


The exemption applies to homes built or commissioned by individuals for their own use. Group projects also qualify. There is also an exemption for people who extend their homes or build residential annexes.

Private homebuilders can apply for an exemption to their local council at any time, as long as their development has not started or ‘commenced’. The definition of ‘commenced’ is set out in section 56(4) of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 and broadly means the point at which some limited works begin on site to implement a planning permission. This includes demolition and other minor groundworks, the digging of trenches, laying of pipes and changes to the use of the land.

Private homebuilders who want to claim the exemption must take two steps before commencing their development: –

  • Firstly, they must commit to pay the levy on the home they want to build. This is done by completing an ‘Assumption of Liability’ form. If the original liability was in the name of a housebuilder, developer or custom build enabler, the private homebuilder must complete a ‘Transfer of Assumed Liability’ form and submit this to the council (ie. the ‘collecting authority’)
  • Secondly, they must certify that their project meets the qualifying criteria by submitting a ‘Self Build Exemption Claim Form – Part 1’ to the council

Private homebuilders must complete this form before starting work to certify that their project complies with the CIL exemption rules
On receipt of the ‘Self Build Exemption Claim Form – Part 1’, the council must notify the private homebuilder in writing as soon as practicable to confirm that the exemption is to be granted. The council will then register the chargeable amount (i.e. the levy that would have been payable if the exemption had not been granted) as a ‘local land charge’ on the property for three years from its completion. Mortgage providers need to be notified of this and approve it.

If the private homebuilder starts the development before they have received notification from the council, the levy charge must be paid in full within the time period specified by the council.

Before starting the development, the private homebuilder must submit a ‘Commencement Notice’ to the council. This must state the date on which the development will start. If this is not done the private homebuilder will become liable for the full levy charge.

On completion of the building work private homebuilders have to submit this form, to confirm that their project qualifies for the exemption
On completion the private homebuilder must submit an ‘Exemption Claim Form – Part 2’ to the council which provides supporting evidence to confirm their project qualifies for relief (this must be done within six months of formal completion of the home).

Private homebuilders applying for an exemption have a right to appeal to the Valuation Office Agency against the amount of levy exemption granted. There is no scope to appeal against a council’s refusal to grant an exemption.

If personal circumstances change and the private homebuilder wants to dispose of the property before the three year occupancy limit expires, they can do so, but they must notify the council. The levy then becomes payable in full. If they don’t notify the council enforcement action can be taken and surcharges will become payable.


General considerations 

Landowners, developers and custom build enablers who are bringing forward serviced plots, shell homes or projects for groups of private homebuilders are not eligible to apply for the exemption. This is because only private homebuilders can claim under the exemption rules.

Landowners, developers and custom build enablers can however indirectly benefit from the exemption by transferring the levy liability to their private homebuilder clients when plots are sold.  This is done by completing ‘Form 4: Transfer of Assumed Liability’. This could be organised as part of the sale of the plot; in the case of a shell home it would need to be done before any construction work begins.

Once private homebuilders have assumed liability to pay the levy they will need to follow the process for claiming the exemption outlined above. To make the process easier for private homebuilders the landowner, developer and custom build enabler could submit the required forms to the council once they have been signed by their clients.

Multi-unit sites and phasing

One area that has generated considerable uncertainty is how the exemption applies to larger sites involving multiple privately built homes (for example where a landowner sells serviced plots or a community group works with a construction company to build a collective project).

On larger developments each plot should be identified as a separate phase, so that the individual purchasers can then apply for the CIL exemption
In those circumstances it is essential that the initiator bringing forward the project applies for a phased planning permission. This is to ensure that the site can be serviced without the levy becoming payable, and that each plot can become a separate chargeable development so that individual private homebuilders can take advantage of the exemption they are entitled to.

The Government supports such an approach and has issued advice through its Planning Practice Guidance (see box below).

Self build exemption work for multi-unit schemes

“For multi-unit schemes (for example, where a builder sells serviced plots or a community group works with a developer), applicants should consider applying for a phased planning permission, to allow each plot to be a separate chargeable development. This will prevent the charge being triggered for all plots within the wider development as soon as development commences on the first dwelling. This will also ensure that if a disqualifying event occurs affecting one unit, it does not trigger a requirement for all to repay the exemption. Under the 2014 Regulations, schemes can be ‘phased’ for levy purposes even if they do not benefit from ‘outline’ planning permission. See more about phased payments.”

Extract from Planning Practice Guidance (Paragraph: 145 Reference ID: 25-145-20140612) (in reference text)

This approach is consistent with the levy regulations, which allow detailed and outline planning permissions (and therefore ‘hybrid’ permissions) to be treated as phased developments for the purposes of the levy. Where a planning application is phased in this way it means that each phase (eg. each parcel, plot or groups of plots) can be regarded as a separate ‘chargeable development’ and therefore become eligible for exemption from the levy.

However, to be implementable the planning application and the permission must make it clear that the development will be phased. This is usually achieved by relating the application and permission to a clearly marked ‘phasing plan’ and accompanying schedule with each phase (or plot) clearly listed. This information is best submitted with the planning application or submitted in response to a pre-commencement condition imposed by a planning permission.

To ensure that the site servicing can start without triggering the levy the initiator who is bringing forward the project can either: –

  • Submit a planning application for the whole development which identifies the enabling infrastructure works as the first phase of development; or
  • Submit a hybrid planning application with the enabling infrastructure works (access and siting of plots) dealt with as full permission, with the construction of the homes on the serviced plots treated as reserved matter consents

Levy charges for each phase are then calculated at the reserved matters stage, when full details of the floorspace and the form of development is known.

This does not mean that each privately built home requires a separate planning application because planning permissions can be linked to a Design Codes or delivered through Local Development Orders. Further detail on the use of Design Codes is set out in Briefing Note Design Codes and Plot Passports.

Irrespective of what type of application is submitted, the first phase of the scheme should relate to works associated with servicing of the site, including any access roads and utilities up to plot boundaries. Levy charges are only payable for new housing floorspace (not for on-site infrastructure), so this work should not trigger any levy liability. This enables plots to be sold to private homebuilders and levy liability for the construction of the homes to be transferred from the builder to the private homebuilder by following the above process.

Any planning permission for new homes that is not phased will be liable to incur levy charges from the day the permission is given, regardless of any planning conditions. This will not allow private homebuilders to apply for the exemption.

The approach to phasing is set out in Regulation 8(3A) of the CIL Regulations 2014 and the Government’s Planning Practice Guidance.

Construction of foundations and use of ‘Golden Brick’ 

To address constrains relating to the way VAT is levied, developers often adopt a ‘Golden Brick’ sale to help reduce costs for the private homebuilder. ‘Golden Brick’ means that a builder or custom build developer constructs the foundation of the home to the point that the first brick is laid above foundation level (the golden brick). This enables the work to be zero rated for VAT purposes, which thereby reduces some of the cost for the private homebuilder, as 20% of the materials costs can be recovered.

In such circumstances CIL charges will become payable by the developer as soon as the foundation work is commenced on a plot unless the private homebuilder has assumed liability and followed the above outlined process to apply for an exemption.

Further detail on the use of ‘Golden Brick’ is set out in Briefing Note Taxation.


Collective or group projects can also benefit from the exemption so long as the individuals involved comply with the procedure for the exemption.

The exemption also includes ‘communal accommodation’ that is for the use of the occupants of more than one of the homes; this could include, for example, shared facilities or guest accommodation. The exemption does not, however, extend to communal space that is for the use of the general public, or for commercial development such as a retail unit.

The communal development exemption is calculated using a formula that is set out in the Levy Regulations (Regulation 54A). This is applied where the gross internal area of the communal development is apportioned to the individual homes on the site, based on the gross internal floor space of the privately built homes.


Understand how the CIL exemption applies to larger projects

Phased planning permissions are a key to tool to effectively deliver the levy exemption on multi-unit home projects – councils need to understand how the process works.


As collecting authorities, councils have a key role to play to enable private homebuilders to benefit from the levy exemption. There are several ways councils can help if they have introduced a levy in their area, including: –

  • Providing basic information and some Q&As on their website to explain how the exemption works and can be applied to multi-home projects – many councils have already done this
  • Publishing guidance to assist applicants when they apply for planning permission, perhaps as part of a Supplementary Planning Document – this approach has been taken by Teignbridge District Council and helps to provide certainty and clarity for all parties
  • Explaining the application of the levy to multi-home projects when engaging with developers in pre-application discussions, and working positively to enable serviced plot developments to be delivered in phases


Explain how the CIL exemption works

Councils should help private homebuilders understand how the exemptions operate, and they should engage positively with developers to apply the exemption to larger projects

Further Reading

The following Case Studies offer useful insight into the issues discussed in this Briefing Note:

Homemade @ Heartlands, Cornwall

Read more


The NaCSBA Research & Development Programme is funded by the Nationwide Foundation and aims to promote the self-build and custom build sector as an affordable route into housing for a greater number of people in the UK.

For further information, please visit: or

Consultations – CS-CS.Net: Electroshaman Laboratory

Guys, I will rework these rules, as they have changed (March 2020, 2022). This is what has changed briefly:

  • Playful consultations like “you think of it, and I’ll help you figure it out” no longer exist. When I wrote this, I did not think that I would fall into schizophrenic mental delirium, in which you yourself do not know what you want.
    Free and stupid consultations (“Shaman, I came across your block K , I’ve been drawing a diagram for two days, look, what’s the norm for me there?”) also don’t exist (only if I see that the answer is “You’re OK”, then I won’t take the money).
  • The task for the consultation is accepted in an UNDERSTANDING (with a description of the logic of work and what was done and how) and READABLE form with a list of questions to be answered. If this is a circuit, then it should NOT be a drawing with a module and a bunch of lines that depict each individual wire (examples of horror here). For such schemes, a double mark-up on the cost of the consultation will be set.
  • Payment is made by bank transfer according to the invoice. For him, I need to know at least your full name and phone number for communication. The minimum cost of any consultation is 10 sput .
  • Pre-repair consultations (before you order a shield from me) are now combined with the payment for the shield calculation. That is, I take the money once and this includes discussion of the shield. And we can discuss it either at my place or at your place. And at the same time talk about wiring and other repair and construction issues.
  • There are consultations and workshops on stage lighting (remotes Avolites Pearl/King Kong 1024/1024s and Avolites Tiger Touch on the Titan system): I can teach how to use the remote (what I know myself), conduct a master class either at my place, or at your facility.
  • All consultations and workshops on switchboards and automation are conducted according to the list of questions. That is, a banter about “I’m from Kaluga and would like to take a master class on shields” – “What will I need to talk about?” – “Preferably about everything” turns into an answer like: “OK! Pay the bill for 10 million and it will take about 10 years – that’s how long I run my blog.
    In short, if you want to have a big consultation or a master class, then set the topic correctly so that I can prepare (for example, prepare a PLC test bench, a shield or some kind of module to show them).

If you want to discuss your complex shield (and plan it), ask me a lot of questions about your repair, call me with a whip to tear your craftsmen and reveal their jambs … finally, if you want to see live how I work and ask me about working for yourself, about assembling shields, all the technologies and tools – then you are here.

For all this, there are consultations – brief meetings where I answer questions or tear workers – and master classes when you come to me for almost the whole day and I show you all my work from and to or collect your shield in front of you. Please don’t confuse them. Consultations are a simpler thing according to my resources, and MK is a thing that takes a lot of strength and emotions (the throat wheezes after four hours only on the way).

Examples of jambs and bad work I collect in section “ How not to do .


  • What you need to know before writing “consult me” or “I want to learn”.
  • 1. What and whom do I consult and what can I be contacted about.
  • 2. How do I order a consultation?
  • 3. What happens during and after work?
  • 4. Data for ordering remote consultation (for soap).
  • 5. Face-to-face consultations (field visits).
  • 6. Face-to-face consultations and master classes (at my home).
  • 7. Payment for consultations.
  • 8. Additional features of work.
What you need to know before writing “consult me” or “I want to learn”.
  1. Consulting and MC is not my main occupation. I am a practitioner, not a theorist or a teacher. My main job is assembling shields, and consultations and MK are answers to your questions or training in assembling shields, but NOT drawing up projects or schemes. Therefore, it will probably be difficult to get to MK with me, because I will have to find time and a good shield for this (on the example of which to show everything).
  2. I am not a guru, but an ordinary person with my own interests. All my knowledge is the result of my personal experience and my views. Therefore, one should not accept them as the most correct truth. There are things that interest me and that I study. And there are things that I don’t give a damn about or that I haven’t seen in my eyes, and you will confuse me with your questions. This is normal, and we will figure it out together.
  3. I can’t teach you anything. You can only learn by yourself, using my knowledge and my experience. In other words: infantiles, whiners (“I read a lot, but I didn’t understand anything, I-I-yal, help me”) and “not only you earn millions a month, oh, come on, teach me everything quickly” go to where they were born from (judging by the curvature of some, the question of where they got out from should be left open ;)).
  4. …and I don’t want to be a public whore. Therefore, for the broad masses (“what is an automatic machine, but how to crimp wires”) I have nothing. All this is chewed up in blog posts and I’m not interested. I assume that you know what a screwdriver is, the characteristics of an automaton, NShVI tips, multi-level terminals on a DIN rail, a logic relay and a PLC, and that you need the features of their application, and not a basic educational program.
  5. Freebies – NO. Not in the sense that I don’t answer trifling questions without a hundred thousand payment (just like that, I just answer most of the trifling ones, they say, “yes, everything is fine with you, just tweak this moment a bit”), but that for 5 thousand, I will not tell Siemens Logo programming techniques for three hours, especially when there are three posts about it on the blog and you can read them.
    At the moment, according to experience, it turns out like this: a consultation costs 10-15 tyr (usually 2-4 hours), a master class costs 25-40 tyr (almost all day and I answer ALL questions about everything).
  6. I don’t want to disassemble your crooked scribbles like “I myself didn’t understand what I want to ask or do”. If you want to ask something – take care so that I understand you. This also applies to the ability to express one’s thoughts in Russian (link once and link two) and to drawing diagrams or other materials. With questions like “I read, I didn’t understand the prompt, the post doesn’t work” and with letters in one line – fuck it. At once! And with an asshole!
  7. Be prepared for the fact that literally EVERYTHING will have to be redone. Maybe rip out all the cables. Maybe open a concrete path to the barn and dig in a new cable to the generator. Maybe rip off expensive custom-made tiles from the walls. If you are not ready for this, do not contact me. In some places I am like a surgeon and the sentence “to cut immediately” sounds to me often and very cynically.
  8. Since consultations and MC are a personal contact (and more often people come to me), then let’s all come without snot-cough, stink from the mouth, smelly feet and other similar crap. The same applies to the thoughts in your head. For example, I myself like to swear when it is necessary, but communication in the form of “fuck it, well, nah” is not for me. And I don’t need to glue chewing gum under the chair on the sly (it was, it was already)!
    I don’t care about nationality, gender, orientation and age. Just be more careful and cultured.
1. What and whom do I consult and what can I be contacted about.

….but I don’t know myself! The format of consultations and MK is not very popular for me, because, as I wrote above, I am not interested in being a mom for everyone – it is more convenient for me to collect shields and transfer my knowledge through this. In fact, jokes aside, here’s what I can do:

  • Look at your repairs and how the workers there do what. Find jambs, scold everyone and say the right thing. For example, such a case was in an apartment near the Dynamo metro station or on Pervomaiskaya.
    IMPORTANT: if your workers do not have an exact list of cables that go to the shield and / or shield diagrams, then you can immediately say that they are doing it wrong and they need to be driven out (read about it here).
  • Listen to your ideas for repairing an apartment / house and correct them on the topic of whether it is doable, not and how to do it better. Maybe something to advise on the spot. Somehow, a very good customer called me to Voronezh for this business.
  • Look at your shield diagrams (I remind you about readability!) And break them: point out jambs, kick in the right direction.
  • Sort your thoughts by self-assembling shields (when you do everything yourself). Put together a block diagram of the shield, suggest some solutions. Answer different questions.
  • Think of how to solve some tricky and non-standard problem. I can sketch ideas, flowcharts and suggest how to put it all together.
  • Advise on the development or usability of a product or piece of hardware/device. I can give advice or ideas that are lacking in terms of practical application, not laboratory theory.
  • Unexpected! About stage lighting. What lighting devices are there and how to program and lead light shows! How!

That is, consultations are questions for me as a specialist (in my field, of course) on the topic “help, tell me, check me. ” But questions like “show, teach, let me see how you work” – this, comrades, is master class . And this thing is much more serious than a consultation, because I have to do three things at the same time: collect someone else’s shield (customer) in front of you so that it doesn’t mess up there, tell and show all this to you, and also sort thoughts, giving out general options for the future (“ ..but in other cases we do this).

In the master class, I try to cover everything at once: working for myself, communicating with customers (be yourself and not lie to yourself and them), billboard calculation, design, assembly, billboard documentation, marking and inscriptions, and almost personal life, spiritual development and so on. In general, everything that my hands touched.

In the master class, you can touch something and see it in action (me too). The only thing I won’t give you is to collect my shield from me. You will do this yourself at home. And I have MK – I will work. Even if I collect your shield. I also have this experience. Tajiks (neat) came and asked to see how they assembled the shield (they brought it to me). I looked, showed – and reassembled the shield as a whole (with my consumables). It was after that that I realized that taking 10 sput for MK is not good.

Be careful: I DO NOT draw up shield diagrams from scratch for self-assembly. Actually NO and NO!

2. How do I order a consultation?

To contact me for advice:

  1. State what you want from me within yourself. Throw out unnecessary and complicated words from this. Gather the necessary information if needed.
  2. Call me (if it’s overtime) or email me. Well, for example, like this: “I want you to come, look at my repair and say your opinion, because it seems to me that the workers are messing up” or “I want to send you a shield diagram so that you can find errors in it and help fix them” or “I want to come to you for a master class on assembling shields “
  3. If you need to come to the object, then we agree on the time, and I come (or you bring me). If you need to consult remotely, then I prepare a response to the soap, declare the amount of money and, after receiving it, send the soap from the drafts. And if you come to me, then we sit down and start talking (or I will conduct a master class).

It is important for me to understand the main thing from a soap or a call: will I have to go or not. It turns out that most often it’s not necessary anymore, because I either guess the series at home, or I just need to look at a couple of photos to understand everything without leaving and say either “you are doing well” or “complete trash, you need to redo everything, collect information “We will redesign the shield and electrics.”

Then I already decide whether I can come or not and whether I can help (suddenly this is an area in which I do not know and can do everything). After that, I announce the price of the consultation and we act.

IMPORTANT! I can show a master class only when I have a good assembly shield for it. Sometimes I have breaks (while I have collected some shields, and the materials for others are still going), and at these moments there will be nothing for MK to do.

Keep this in mind: if you asked about MK and I agreed, it means that right now I have a shield on the assembly. And that in a few days it will no longer be in the assembly. If you miss this moment, then MK will no longer exist. To another shield.

3. What happens during and after work?

1. During the consultation (at the facility or in person):

  • I take different photographs of the facility with my camera as a memento and for a detailed analysis later, after the consultation.
  • If we communicate live at my place, then I draw some diagrams on paper, make various notes in the course of communication (articles, flowcharts, important words). Of course, you can ask for a piece of paper with a pen and take notes on what I am telling.
  • ONLY with my consent you can record the consultation process on a voice recorder or video so that you can keep it for detailed listening and understanding.

2. After consultation:

  • received for advice).
  • Also, if it was necessary, in the mail I send different articles and links to the goods that were discussed in the consultation.
  • If you do not forbid me, then I write a report on the blog in the section “ How not to do ” based on the photographs taken, in order to protect other people from jambs at objects.

3. For the master class:

  • I am talking to you as a specialist with a specialist. I talk about technologies, and those cases that led me to technologies or helped create strict rules for working for myself and with customers.
  • Ideally, I collect a part of the shield in front of you, commenting on each action. In reality, it is best to come when the module is already placed on the shield and it is assembled according to the power unit (and, for example, the automation has not yet been assembled). Then the shield will be “alive” and you can show it in action.
    In another version, I assemble your shield in front of you in the same way as I do with all shields: I draw up documentation, print markings, arrange the module on rails, connect everything with wires.
  • I answer all questions and comment in advance on situations that you may have later when you collect shields yourself.
4. Data for ordering remote consultation (on soap).

In order to give me a job, I don’t need anything special. It is enough to describe by mail what I have to do (what you want from me) in simple and understandable words and attach additional materials (the format of accepted materials is indicated in Contacts ):

  • Photos of the object (disputed places, shield, cable laying). Photos must be such that I can enlarge them and carefully examine them on a computer (uncompressed). It will be convenient for me if you photograph the general plan of the object and give close-up photographs of the disputed places.
  • If you ask me to advise the shield on the photo, then I will need to find out what each shield machine is responsible for and what cables go from it. To do this, you will need either a shield diagram or the “Automatic – Cable – Section” list.
  • Schemes (projects, drawings) to be studied and verified. I remind you that I do not accept such schemes that are difficult to look at from the screen and print on A4 sheet.

Actually, nothing more is needed.

5. Face-to-face consultations (field visits).

If you need to inspect some object (apartment, cottage, cottage, office, warehouse, production), then you need to ask me to come there. At the facility, I myself can climb everything, take pictures of all the errors and controversial points found, and then issue a report on all this. I can also be invited to another city, if required.

Usually my work on the road goes like this: first, I get acquainted with the object and listen to a general story about what was planned and where what room is. Then I begin to examine the object and look for obvious jambs and problems, immediately talking about them and photographing them. And at the very end, when everything has formed into a single picture in my head, I am ready to answer your questions.

1. So, I can come to your site. Depending on where the object is, it will look like this:0003

  • Property within Moscow and can be reached by public transport . In this case, give me its exact address and local landmarks (exit from the metro, where to turn), which public transport routes you need to get to it, and the like. I’ll print out the map myself and follow it.
  • The object is outside of Moscow and can be reached by car . I don’t have my own car, so in this case you can catch me near any of the metro stations and bring and take me yourself. Along the way, we get to know each other better and chat.
  • Object in another city (region) . You can call me to another city so that I can look at what is required of me on the spot and give out a bunch of decisions, and maybe later I will collect a shield for you. In this case, you will arrange for me all the way there and back (you can bring and take me personally, if you are in Moscow, you can take it by train, by plane). And if all this will require several days of work, then you will additionally organize hotel accommodation also at your expense. The most important thing is that there is a clean bed, shower and toilet. An example of such a trip is here in this post: “ House in Voronezh. Who said you can’t come?! “.

2. I try to arrive on time or with a margin if I do not know the area and am not sure about the road. If suddenly I am late, I will call you and warn you. Likewise, if you are late, let me know. If you are late for more than half an hour without warning, then I most likely will not wait for you.

3. If the object is large (office, production), then describe to me where to look for you and whom to ask so that I don’t get lost.

4. Make a list of questions in advance that you want to ask me and find out. You can write them down on a piece of paper so you don’t forget, and then ask them to me at the end of the consultation.

6. Face-to-face consultations and master classes (at my home).

Face-to-face consultations or master classes are convenient because I often have some kind of shields in the assembly process, and I can immediately show you, using his example, how and what is done, or what solutions are. This is also part of the consultation and is included in working hours. And even with face-to-face communication, you can transfer a lot of information much faster: I have examples of components, archives of photos, and catalogs – and all this is at hand in printed form.

1. Respect my time. Don’t be late! If something does not work out for you (you will be late, you will not arrive) – please call and warn me as soon as possible so that I do not wait for you and take up other matters.

2. I remind you that I kick out those who come in dirty clothes, with smelly feet or unwashed. Would you like to sit next to such a person for several hours and have a friendly conversation? To me – no.

3. From the moment we met and started to study, I start the countdown (I mark the start time on a piece of paper). Later, the time is rounded up so as not to count any trips to the toilet, small breaks.

4. Please don’t touch anything without my permission. I myself will show and tell you what you can take to turn and even break, and what is fine and you can no longer touch it.

7. Payment for consultations.

1. The amount of consultations is calculated as follows:

  • Absentee (for soap) . I say the amount in advance before I start doing something.
  • In-person visits . At the moment, the amount is fixed and I say it in advance before leaving.
  • I have full-time (by time) . I say the amount in advance for an hour of my time. Usually a consultation, if it is not a master class, takes 1-3 hours (we both get tired after that).

2. This case is paid in the following way:

  • Correspondence (for soap) . If the amount suits me, then I first prepare an answer (soap in drafts), and then I ask them to transfer money to me for the work. After receiving the money, I send the soap with the answer.
  • Onsite . I receive payment at the end of the trip. I finish the report on the departure after receiving the payment, because my work – to come and see – has already been completed. If the amount is large, then it can be divided into two stages: I receive part after I went and looked, and part – as in a correspondence consultation – after I finish the report.
  • I have full-time (by time) . Payment is made after the end of the gatherings according to the time spent. The whole thing is rounded up to a convenient amount for us, so as not to mess around with a trifle.
8. Additional features of work.

1. Consultation is a one-time action and one-time work. It does not continue after I gave you information (soap, report, description). If you do not understand some trifle, then of course you can interrogate it without any problems. But if it suddenly turns out that you want to ask a dozen more questions, then welcome to another consultation.

2. I convey information as clearly as possible. Don’t be afraid to ask again if you don’t understand something and don’t be afraid to ask me to explain several times. After all, that’s why you came to me. Understand that if you nod your head at me, then it will be worse for you yourself.

3. I work ONLY directly with customers without intermediaries and intermediaries. I am obliged to explain exactly to the customer what happened, why the asshole and what to do.

4. I don’t “train” workers, superintendents, electricians from the Housing Office and other personalities. The customer must decide all these issues himself, without my help, so that it does not look like “Hey, go punish my workers. ” “Punish workers” is “BDSM” and possible (whips and terrible butt plugs I have), but it is paid at completely different rates.

5. I don’t call and diagnose someone else’s wiring – I don’t run with a tester to find out where it leads, if the jamshuts have escaped from the object and I need to figure it out.

Official website of the Nazarovsk Energy Construction College

  • Company information
    • Basic information
    • Structure and governing bodies of an educational organization

      Information about the educational organization. Structure and governing bodies educator

    • Documents

      Information about the educational organization. Documents

    • Education

      Information about the educational organization. Education

    • Educational standards and requirements

      Information about the educational organization. Educational standards and requirements

    • Manual. Teaching staff

      Guide. Pedagogical (scientific and pedagogical) staff

    • Logistics and equipment of the educational process

      Logistics and equipment of the educational process

    • Scholarships and Student Supports

      Scholarships and Student Supports

    • Paid educational services

      Paid educational services

    • Financial and economic activities

      Financial and economic activities

    • Vacancies for admission (transfer) of students

      Vacancies for admission (transfer) of students

    • Accessible environment

      Accessible environment

    • International cooperation

      International cooperation

    • Catering in an educational organization
    • Feedback
    • Frequently Asked Questions
  • About Us

    Information about the college: structure, general information, news, history

    • About NEST
    • History of the technical school

      History of the formation of the technical school

    • Independent assessment of the quality of education

      Information about the technical school: assessment, quality, education, independent

    • SURVEY on the quality of educational services
    • Anti-corruption
    • News
      • All news
      • Event announcement
      • 75 years of Victory
      • 80 years of the system of vocational education in Russia
      • Breaking news
      • Culture and sports
      • Science and education
    • Photo tour
    • Contacts

      Telephone directory, feedback

    • Reception of applications from citizens
    • Frequently Asked Questions
  • Applicant

    Applicant, admission committee, specialties

    • Admission committee
    • Online application for admission
    • Specialties and professions
    • Why choose NEST?
    • Hostels

      Information about hostels

  • Student

    Schedule, information for students, distance learning

    • Educational activities
      • Class schedule
      • Bell Schedule
      • Calendar training schedule
      • Local regulations governing educational activities
      • Financial literacy
    • Correspondence department
      • Correspondence department
      • Schedule of the correspondence department
      • Organization of the educational process
      • Student help
      • Cost of educational services
    • Educational and social activities

      Educational work, psychological assistance

      • Educational activities
      • Scholarships and other financial support

        Scholarships and student support measures

      • Hostels

        Information about hostels

      • Psychological and pedagogical support
      • College Student Council

        Educational work, student council

      • Parents
    • Graduate Employment Service
      • About
      • Structure of TSTS
      • Career constructor

        Employment, career

      • Employment Center
      • Internships 2. 0
      • Professions of the future
      • Employers
      • Cooperation with universities
      • How to find a job? (summary)
      • Graduate employment analysis
      • Activities
      • We invite you to the energy detachments
    • Security
    • Electronic services

      Electronic services

      • Electronic forms and document templates
      • Electronic library
      • Basic federal educational portals
      • Interesting educational resources
  • Teacher
    • Methodical work
    • Research activities
  • WorldSkills
    • WorldSkills Russia Movement
    • WorldSkills Russia in the Krasnoyarsk Territory
    • WSR Demonstration Exam
    • WSR
    • Regional Championship

    • Platform “Ticket to the Future”
    • Training of citizens within the framework of the federal project “Employment Promotion”
    • Free training WSR
  • Additional education

Rearrangement of furniture in the apartment, preparation, sequence of work

When thinking about changes in life and environment, it is not at all necessary to quit your job or move to another continent. It is worth starting small, for example, modifying housing. A full-fledged repair requires large financial costs, but rearranging furniture in an apartment will take a little time and effort. Although this is by no means such a simple task as it might seem at first glance. In order for the interior items to successfully harmonize with each other, the operation was as comfortable as possible, certain rules should be followed when moving around the apartment.

Preparatory stage

The rearrangement of furniture in the apartment must be planned. It is best to make a detailed drawing or simulate the future design on a computer. Do not neglect the exact dimensions of the room and all the items in it, otherwise a bulky wardrobe may be too large for a niche that seemed like an ideal place for it 5 minutes ago.

Simulation of the room’s environment will avoid unnecessary labor, save time and prevent damage to floor and wall coverings as a result of thoughtless movements of large objects from one corner to another.

Also, in order to significantly facilitate your work, you need to free the furniture in the room from the contents. It is also necessary to put things in order on the way of movement of the structure – all small and large objects must be removed. Please note that when moving the product, any of its doors or drawers may open. At best, you will have to stop to correct the situation, at worst, property will deteriorate, damage will appear. To avoid this, all easily opening parts of the furniture are securely fixed with adhesive tape.

SNED Future design on a computer

free the furniture in the room from the contents of

Remove small and large items

Opening the opening parts of the furniture

Start with cleaning

Support for order, setting up the order, starting to change: starting cleaning: starting cleaning: starting cleaning: starting cleaning: starting cleaning: starting the cleaning Don’t stop at just cleaning surfaces. We recommend dismantling the internal cabinets, getting rid of unnecessary things and freeing up space. Perhaps this will help you tune in to more significant transformations: change bulky walls for light cabinets and shelves, or sell an unloved chair or an outdated computer desk.
General cleaning will help to identify weaknesses in the apartment. Perhaps you have been disturbed by an uncomfortable sofa for a long time or annoyed by an empty corner.

Basic rules

Furniture rearrangement is carried out according to the main rule: the convenience of its use should not be inferior to aesthetic properties. If the nightstand harmoniously fits between the bed and the chair, but its door cannot be opened completely, the place is chosen incorrectly. Do not neglect the following recommendations:

  1. Furniture in a small room is arranged in only one order: first large objects, then small ones.
  2. All removable parts of heavy structures are pre-dismantled.
  3. Special tools are used to move objects that are too large.
  4. If there are wheels on the base of the table or cabinet, make sure they are intact.

Stages of self-assembly of furniture, rules for deciphering drawings

Arrange large objects first, then small ones

Dismantle detachable parts of heavy structures

Use special tools to move bulky items

Check that the wheels are working properly
A radical rearrangement of furniture can be done in the living room, bedroom or children’s room. In the kitchen, the possibilities are significantly limited, because it is unrealistic to swap the sink and gas stove without the participation of a specialist and additional financial expenses. However, the situation can be diluted with additional elements, while observing simple rules. It is unacceptable to place heat sources near the refrigerator, and dishes and household appliances should be in close proximity to the working area. When moving the dining table or other pieces of furniture, the risk of damage to the gas or water pipes must be excluded.

Renovating your bedroom is as easy as rearranging your living room furniture. In the first case it is not recommended:

  1. Putting the bed in front of the front door, as the light from the next room with the door open will cause discomfort.
  2. Place a mirror in front of the bed.
  3. Install the cabinet near a window, otherwise you will have to turn on the light every time you use it.
  4. To pile up a small room with a lot of items.

When furnishing the living room, do not put the TV screen to the window and closer than 3 meters to the sofa or armchair. And in order for a long room to become cozy, it is necessary to visually create a square. In solving this problem will help: a corner sofa, special partitions, shelving, and other pieces of furniture.

Aisles in living rooms must be at least 60 cm wide. For this reason, the baby bed is rearranged so that there are no annoying factors around. For schoolchildren, it is important to provide a large amount of light in the work area.

Do not place a bed in front of the front door

Do not place a mirror in front of a bed

Do not install a wardrobe near a window beds should not be irritating factors

For schoolchildren to provide a large amount of light in the working area

Thinking over the functionality

Starting the transformation, it is worth determining what functional areas you need. For example, you’ve always needed a mini office, a reading nook, or extra storage space.

If more than one person lives in the room, zoning is required: a rack placed across the room, a sofa turned back, a curtain as a partition will do. Pay attention to the corners – they often remain unused and the usable area is reduced.

TV and computer should not be placed in front of a window – the screen will glare. The distance between the TV and the viewer should be at least three of its diagonals.

Changes depending on the type of furniture

How furniture will be rearranged depends not only on the type of room, but also on the dimensions of the products themselves. Any object must be moved in such a way as to preserve its integrity and not damage the flooring. Also, do not forget about your own safety.

The procedure for making a do-it-yourself furniture welding machine


Heavy and large furniture in the apartment should be rearranged first. Otherwise, smaller structures will interfere with its movement. In this case, you need to follow a certain sequence of actions:

  1. Ask at least one other person for help.
  2. Put polyethylene covers under the legs of the furniture to protect the floor from unwanted scratches.
  3. Scrub the floor with soap or wax.
  4. Slowly move one side, then the other.
  5. Use special floor mats to overcome thresholds.

The main thing that can prevent trouble-free work is haste. It is better to spend more time to correctly rearrange the furniture than to eliminate scratches and dents later.

Place plastic covers under furniture legs

Wax or soap the floor

Move furniture one at a time

Use special mats

Items must be emptied of contents to reduce weight. Household appliances are disconnected from electricity before moving. A new place is preliminarily prepared for arrangement, and the path to it is freed from unnecessary things.

Empty items from contents

Disconnect household appliances from electricity

Clear aisles

Sets and sets

Interior design often uses large furniture structures consisting of several elements. As a rule, they are selected for a certain style, and if the apartment has a non-standard layout, then they are made to order. If all the parts are securely fastened together, you will need special tools and a lot of time to rearrange the furniture. In the absence of the necessary skills, you will have to seek professional help. It is much easier to modify the modular kit. Its separate parts are easily rearranged from place to place.

Working with Light

If your reading area or work desk is tied to sockets or wall lights, you should consider this before moving furniture. The lack of light brings a feeling of discomfort, so you should consider the degree of illumination in advance.

Additional light sources or extensions may be required, which will have to be hidden. It is good if the apartment has portable lamps, lamps and floor lamps.

Special tools

The better the furniture glides on the floor, the less chance of scratches. To ensure the desired effect, it is not necessary to use professional, expensive tools. Every person has many of the suitable devices at home: nylon covers, a woolen rug, raw potatoes, wax. If we are talking about very heavy furniture, you should pay attention to specialized devices.

Steps to make a simple drywall cabinet

Furniture mover What is Benefits
Furniture transporter Special metal platforms with rotating platforms on eight wheels. Lift the item with a lever, regardless of size or weight Quiet, clean, efficient operation
Tie down straps Polyester straps with ratchet tensioner and mounting fittings Stretchy, lightweight, easy to use fixture
Soft textile band Complemented with rigging equipment that acts as a kind of jack. Designed for use by two people Use your hands to move furniture
Roller Cart Features ball bearings, nylon wheels and a comfortable handle Self-balances on uneven ground, maintenance free

To reduce the risk of injury and falling furniture, follow simple safety rules. At a minimum, an adequate assessment of one’s own physical capabilities is required, as well as a check of the equipment used for operability.

Furniture conveyor

Tie down straps

Soft webbing

Rolling cart


  1. Ignoring the need for planning. As a result, the result does not live up to expectations, which means that much more effort is spent on solving the problem. Calculations made in advance exclude the possibility of such a problem.
  2. Moving large furniture with things. The latter significantly increase the weight of the already bulky structure, so it becomes more difficult to move it. All you have to do is spend a little time emptying shelves and drawers.
  3. Performing work without additional assistance. To cope alone is possible only when transferring small, not heavy pieces of furniture. In other cases, independence is fraught with damage to the flooring and even dangerous injuries.

When drawing up a plan, it is important to take into account not only the parameters of the furniture and the place where it will stand, doorways must be included in the calculations. Not every cabinet will easily fit into the door unassembled. The more such nuances are provided, the faster and easier the process of rearranging furniture and updating the interior of the apartment will be.

Ignoring the need for planning

Moving large furniture with things

Doing work without additional help

Web service for the lazy

wardrobe and wall, a simple web service

will help you. There is no need to download anything or register on the site, and in the service itself it is proposed to go through only three steps: create the walls of the room, install doors and windows and arrange furniture.

Furniture can be named, resized, placed anywhere and turned over. You can remove unnecessary furniture by double-clicking on its image on the plan.

Another plus is that the service automatically saves your plan, so you can create it and safely close the browser without screenshots – if anything, return to the site and look at it again.

A simple and easy to use program will help you to see the finished plan in a few minutes, experiment with the arrangement of furniture and find the best position, but if you find it difficult to imagine how it will look, you can use more complex programs, such as Sweet Home 3D. 97071727374757677787980818283848586878889










    192193194195196197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217218219220221222223224225226227228 пустая2292302312322332342352362372382392402412422432442452462472482492502512522532542552562572582592602612622632642652662672682692702712722732742752762772782792802812822832842852862872882892



    Copy page text

    (works in Chrome 42+,
    Microsoft Internet Explorer and Mozilla FireFox
    with Adobe Flash Player installed)


    Current pages are framed.



    1Title pages


    5About the structure of the book



    35Chapter 1. The first steps of the Soviet atomic project. The role of intelligence



    391. Main stages in the implementation of the Soviet atomic project

    391.1. First steps towards building nuclear infrastructure

    401.2. Some results of work on the Soviet atomic project in 1942

    432. Work on the atomic project in 1943

    432.1. First steps in the activities of the Special Laboratory for the Atomic Nucleus

    452.2. Organizational measures for the formation and strengthening of the work of the Special Laboratory on the atomic nucleus

    463. Work on the atomic problem in 1944 and the first half of 1945

    463.1. Issues of uranium isotope separation and development of nuclear reactors

    483.2. Analysis of the features of the creation of the atomic bomb

    493. 3. Data and deliveries from Germany

    504. Basic scientific and technical data obtained by intelligence of the USSR

    504.1. Atomic bomb device

    514.2. Fundamental physical data

    524.3. Separation of isotopes

    534.4. Nuclear reactors

    534.5. Organization of work

    55 Appendix to chapter 1

    551. Key points in L.P. Beria I.V. Stalin (March 1942)

    552. Analysis of data from Great Britain

    573. On the use of a uranium pile to obtain transuranium elements

    584. On consideration of a list of American works on the uranium problem

    605. About the work on the uranium project

    606. Analysis of the data of the Survey

    617. About the development of the atomic bomb in the USA

    618. Analysis of data received from the USA

    629. Analysis of data received from the USA

    6310. Analysis of data received from the USA

    6311. About the parameters of the atomic bomb USA

    6312. About the design of the atomic bomb USA

    67Chapter 2. Creation of the first nuclear and thermonuclear weapons


    691. Creation and testing of the first Soviet atomic bomb

    691.1. Organization of the main structures for the creation of atomic weapons in the USSR

    701.2. The main problems in the development of the first atomic bomb

    731.3. Cooperation of works of KB-11 and other organizations

    771.4. The first atomic bomb

    791.5. Preparation of the test site for RDS-1 testing

    791.6. Testing RDS-1

    811.7. Results of the RDS-1 test

    822. Creation of the first samples of nuclear weapons

    822.1. Atomic bombs RDS-2, RDS-3

    842.2. Atomic charges for the first tactical nuclear weapons

    862.3. Development of neutron initiation systems

    862.3.1. Neutron initiation systems in the USA

    872.3.2. Neutron initiation systems in the USSR

    883. Creation of the first samples of thermonuclear weapons

    883. 1. First information

    893.2. First research on the hydrogen bomb

    913.3. Development of thermonuclear charge RDS-6s

    943.4. Development of the thermonuclear bomb RDS-37

    973.5. Comparison of the first thermonuclear charges of the USSR and the USA

    99Chapter 3. Development of the nuclear weapons program of the USSR


    1021. Work to improve the technical characteristics of nuclear weapons

    1021.1. Totsk military exercises in 1954

    1041.2. First steps to improve nuclear weapons

    1041.2.1. General approaches to the improvement of nuclear weapons

    1061.2.2. Improvement of tactical nuclear weapons

    1071.3. First steps to improve thermonuclear weapons

    1071.3.1. The problem of strategic delivery vehicles for nuclear weapons and its solution

    1091.3.2. Work on the creation of combat equipment for ICBM R-7

    1101.4. Thermonuclear charges of the second generation

    1161. 5. Boosting in nuclear charges

    1161.5.1. US boosting

    1171.5.2. Boosting UK

    1181.5.3. Boosting in the USSR and the creation of new nuclear charges

    1191.6. Moratorium period 1958-1961

    1191.6.1. Development of scientific, technical and design work

    1201.6.2. Proposals for expanding the scope of activities of nuclear centers

    1211.6.3. Hydronuclear research

    1231.7. Ensuring nuclear explosion safety of nuclear weapons

    1231.7.1. The problem of nuclear explosion safety

    1241.7.2. Research into the problem of nuclear explosion safety

    1261.7.3. Comparison of the programs of field tests of the USSR and the USA for the study of nuclear explosion safety

    1281.7.4. Some results of work on creating accident models

    1291.8. Studies of damaging factors of nuclear explosions

    1291.8.1. General characteristics of damaging factors of nuclear explosions

    1311.8.2. Military-technical capabilities of nuclear arsenals and damaging factors

    1311. 8.3. The impact of damaging factors of a nuclear explosion

    1321.8.4. Military exercises and nuclear tests

    1331.8.5. Specialized nuclear tests in the interests of PFYaV research until 1963

    1331.9. Unique nuclear tests in 1961 and 1962

    1331.9.1. Nuclear explosions at high altitudes

    1351.9.2. Special physical experiments to study the impact of nuclear explosion factors

    1361.10. Development of nuclear charges in the conditions of underground testing grounds

    1372. Development of modern nuclear weapons

    1372.1. Ways of basing ballistic missiles

    1382.2. The main stages in the development of strategic marine complexes

    1412.3. Main stages of development of ground strategic complexes

    1442.4. Development of charges of the third generation for combat equipment of strategic weapons in the period from the second half of the 60s to the beginning of the 80s

    1452.5. Multiple warheads of strategic missiles

    1492. 6. Issues of development of specialized types of nuclear charges

    1502.6.1. Development of nuclear weapons and the problem of reducing radioactive damage

    1522.6.2. Neutron bomb

    1542.6.3. X-ray laser with nuclear pumping

    1552.7. Physical installations and irradiation experiments for studying the effects of PFYaV

    1592.8. Nuclear tests and physical and mathematical modeling of the work of nuclear charges

    1612.9. Characteristics of nuclear tests of the USSR and the USA during the period of underground nuclear tests

    1612.9.1. Nuclear tests in 1963-1976

    1622.9.2. High yield underground nuclear tests

    1632.9.3. Development of nuclear charges and nuclear testing under the conditions of the 1974 Treaty

    165Chapter 4. The impact of agreements on the limitation of nuclear weapons on the structure of nuclear arsenals


    1681 for peaceful purposes

    1681.1. Brief history of conclusion of Agreements

    1691. 2. Military-technical and technological prerequisites for concluding agreements

    1691.3. Contents of the Treaty between the USSR and the USA on the limitation of underground tests of nuclear weapons

    1711.4. Contents of the Treaty between the USSR and the USA on underground nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes

    1721.5. The problem of control of the 1974 Treaty

    1722. Development of medium-range missiles and the INF Treaty

    1722.1. Intermediate-range ballistic missiles

    1752.2. On the development of US cruise missiles

    1772.3. On the military-technical aspects of the Treaty between the USSR and the USA on the Elimination of Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles

    1803. The USSR Strategic Nuclear Weapons System by 1991 and the Problem of Nuclear Arms Limitation

    1803.1. The state of the strategic nuclear forces of the USSR by 1991

    1823.2. Characteristics of START USSR

    1823.2.1. Quantitative and technical characteristics of strategic nuclear forces

    1843. 2.2. Characteristics of Strategic Air Deployment

    1853.2.3. Deployment characteristics of SLBMs

    1873.2.4. Deployment characteristics of ICBMs

    1893.3. Specifications US START

    1893.3.1. Quantitative and technical characteristics of strategic nuclear forces

    1913.3.2. Characteristics of strategic aviation deployment

    1923.3.3. Deployment characteristics of SLBMs

    1933.3.4. Deployment characteristics of ICBMs

    1943.4. Comparison of the general characteristics of the strategic offensive arms of the USSR and the USA

    1973.5. Disintegration of the USSR and START 9 SYSTEM0003

    1973.5.1. State and prospects of ICBMs

    1993.5.2. Status and prospects for SLBMs

    1993.5.3. Status and prospects of the TB system

    2003.5.4. The final characteristics of the strategic nuclear forces of the Russian Federation, determined by the disintegration of the USSR

    2014. The new balance of strategic forces

    2014. 1. Stability of the bipolar world

    2034.2. The collapse of the USSR and the crisis of strategic offensive arms in Russia

    2044.3. Threat of loss of nuclear deterrence for Russia

    2055. The problem of creating a missile defense system

    2055.1. Development of air defense systems in the USA

    2075.2. Development of missile defense in the USA

    2085.3. Situation before the conclusion of the 1972 ABM Treaty. Tasks of creating missile defense

    2115.4. The emergence of MIRVs and their impact on missile defense

    2155.5. Development of anti-satellite weapons programs in the USA

    2165.6. US Strategic Defense Initiative

    2205.7. Discussing the possibilities of creating a joint missile defense system

    2215.8. US Limited National ABM Program

    2226. Total Nuclear Test Ban

    2226.1. The problem of a complete ban on nuclear tests

    2256.2. Contents of the 1996 FNTI Agreement

    2256.3. Increasing the effectiveness of monitoring compliance with the CTBT through the use of regional small-aperture microgroups deployed near the borders of the controlled area



    2311. The first ideas on the use of nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes

    2352. The concept of peaceful nuclear explosions

    2363. The classification of peaceful nuclear explosions carried out on the territory of the USSR

    2394. The beginning of the program for carrying out nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes USSR

    2445. On the development of specialized charges for carrying out nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes

    2496. Technical application of underground nuclear explosions

    2496.1. Deep seismic sounding of the earth’s crust

    2506.2. Excavation nuclear explosions

    2536.3. Intensification of production in oil fields

    2546.4. Extinguishing and liquidation of uncontrolled gas fountains

    2556.5. Creation of underground cavities for various uses

    2576.6. Nuclear explosive production of isotopes

    2606.7. Using the technology of creating cavities in rock salt to solve the problem of isotope production

    2616. 8. On the possibility of using nuclear explosive technologies to solve global environmental problems of modern civilization

    2626.8.1. Some features of nuclear explosive technology for the destruction of chemically toxic materials

    2646.8.2. Nuclear explosive technology for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    2677. Measures to ensure the safety of peaceful nuclear explosions

    2688. Creation of nuclear weapons and fundamental scientific research

    2688.1. Influence of nuclear weapons programs on the development of fundamental research

    2718.2. Basic research in underground nuclear testing

    2738.3. Basic research related to the damaging factors of a nuclear explosion

    2738.3.1. Electromagnetic pulse of a nuclear explosion

    2748.3.2. Shock wave of a nuclear explosion

    2758.3.3. Radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and the earth’s surface

    2768.3.4. Features of high-altitude explosion

    2778. 4. Possibilities of nuclear technologies for solving some fundamental problems

    2788.4.1. US development of nuclear explosive engine

    2808.4.2. Possibilities of using nuclear explosions to combat the asteroid hazard

    2828.4.3. The Problem of Using Nuclear Explosions to Change the Climate

    2829. Peaceful Nuclear Explosions and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    285 Appendix to Chapter 5. Peaceful Nuclear Explosions of the USSR. Use of nuclear explosive technologies in the interests of the national economy

    291Chapter 6. Development of the nuclear infrastructure of the USSR

    292Contents Start of the nuclear project

    2941.2. Creation of the technological and industrial base of the nuclear project

    2941.2.1. Uranium exploration and production

    2961.2.2. Organization of plutonium production

    2981.2.3. Organization of production of highly enriched uranium

    3001.3. The role of the State Planning Commission and the NKVD in the organization of the nuclear industry

    3021. 4. Cooperation of organizations at the initial stage of the nuclear project

    3041.5. Expansion of the production infrastructure after testing RDS-1

    3052. Development of the nuclear industry infrastructure

    3052.1. Organization of the Ministry of Medium Machine Building

    3062.2. On the development of the resource base of Minatom

    3062.2.1. Works on development of uranium mining technologies

    3082.2.2. Creation and development of mining uranium plants

    3102.3. Development of plutonium production infrastructure

    3102.3.1. Mayak Production Association

    3112.3.2. Siberian Chemical Combine

    3122.3.3. Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine

    3132.4. Development of uranium production

    3132.4.1. Ural Electrochemical Combine

    3132.4.2. Angarsk electrolysis chemical plant

    3132.4.3. Krasnoyarsk Electrochemical Plant

    3142.4.4. Kirovo-Chepetsk Chemical Combine

    3142.4.5. Novosibirsk plant of chemical concentrates

    3142. 4.6. Machine building plant (Elektrostal)

    3152.4.7. PO “Chepetsk Mechanical Plant”

    3152.5. Serial production of nuclear weapons

    3152.5.1. Creation and development of production of nuclear weapons

    3172.5.2. Electromechanical plant “Avangard”

    3182.5.3. Enterprises for the production of nuclear weapons and their components

    3202.6. Department of Defense and Atomic Project

    3202.6.1. Novaya Zemlya test site

    3212.6.2. Air Force polygons

    3222.6.3. Technical inspection

    3232.6.4. Special acceptance

    3242.6.5. Training of military specialists

    3242.6.6. Ensuring the security of nuclear weapons and the Ministry of Defense

    3252.7. Creation of technologies for the production and handling of radioactive materials

    3252.7.1. NPO “Radium Institute” named after V.G. Khlopina

    3262.7.2. All-Russian Research Institute of Inorganic Materials named after A.A. Bochvara

    3273. Reorganization of the state structure of the nuclear industry

    3273.1. State Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR for the use of atomic energy

    3273.2. Creation of NTS No. 2

    3283.3. Transformation of the MCM into the State Production Committee for Medium Machine Building

    3293.4. Ministry of Medium Machine Building after 1965

    3303.5. The heyday of the nuclear industry in 1975-1986

    3304. The nuclear industry in the late 80s – early 90s

    3304.1. Education of Minatom of Russia

    3324.2. Conversion and reform of the nuclear industry

    3334.3. The structure of Minatom in the new economic conditions

    3354.4. Structure of the nuclear weapons complex of the Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russia

    3354.4.1. Department of development and testing of nuclear weapons

    3374.4.2. Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Sarov)

    3404.4.3. Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics. E.I. Zababakhina (Snezhinsk)

    3404.4.4. All-Russian Research Institute of Automation. N.L. Dukhova

    3424.4.5. Center for Nuclear Instrumentation – Research Institute of Pulse Technology

    3434.4.6. Research Institute of Measuring Systems

    3434.4.7. Institute for Strategic Stability

    3434.5. National control system for the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    3434.5.1. General approaches to ensuring the protection of nuclear materials and facilities

    3444.5.2. Creation of a system for providing the nuclear industry with technical safety equipment

    3464.6. Ministers of the nuclear industry

    3474.7. Personnel policy of the nuclear industry

    3484.8. Plans to reduce the nuclear weapons complex

    349Chapter 7. Nuclear power industry of the USSR and Russia


    3511. The beginning of the journey. First works on nuclear power engineering

    3522. Development of nuclear power reactors

    3522. 1. Development of the scheme of water-graphite reactors

    3532.2. Nuclear power plants with water-graphite reactors

    3542.3. Development of VVER reactors

    3563. Fast neutron reactors

    3584. Nuclear power industry of the USSR and Russia

    3584.1. Nuclear power plants of the USSR

    3634.2. The place of nuclear energy in the fuel and energy balance

    3645. Some areas of development of nuclear energy technologies

    3645.1. Small nuclear power industry

    3665.2. Nuclear power plants

    3675.3. Development of nuclear power plants for space vehicles

    3696. General characteristics of the world electric power industry

    3696.1. World energy production and the role of nuclear power

    3716.2. Stocks of main energy carriers

    3736.3. Prospects for nuclear energy

    3767. The future of the Russian nuclear industry

    3767.1. The need for a new strategy for the development of the nuclear industry

    3797. 2. Prospects for the nuclear industry

    3807.3. The supply of nuclear fuel from weapons-grade uranium to the United States and the national interests of Russia

    3817.4. Energy technologies of the 21st century and nuclear fuel cycles

    3858. Initiative of the President of the Russian Federation on energy support for the sustainable development of mankind

    3879. Initiative of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy

    391Chapter 8. Prospects for nuclear weapons policy. The problem of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons


    3941. Russia’s national security concept on nuclear weapons

    3962. The military doctrine of the Russian Federation on nuclear weapons

    3973. Treaty between the Russian Federation and the United States of America on the reduction of strategic offensive potentials

    3984. The state and prospects for the development of US nuclear weapons

    3984.1. Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs)

    3984. 1.1. ICBM Minuteman III

    3994.1.2. MBR MX

    3994.2. Nuclear submarines carrying SLBMs

    3994.2.1. Status and development of SSBNs

    4004.2.2. Trident II SLBM

    4004.2.3. Warheads for SLBMs

    4014.3. Strategic aviation

    4014.4. Non-strategic nuclear forces

    4024.5. Nuclear ammunition

    4035. Russian nuclear forces by 2002. Status and development trends

    4035.1. Intercontinental ballistic missiles

    4035.1.1. ICBM SS-18

    4035.1.2. ICBM SS-19

    4045.1.3. ICBM SS-24

    4045.1.4. ICBM SS-25

    4045.1.5. ICBM SS-27

    4045.2. Nuclear submarines with ballistic missiles

    4055.3. Bombers

    4055.4. Tactical nuclear forces

    4066. Changes in US nuclear strategy

    4066.1. US Department of Defense Nuclear Posture Review Report

    4076.1.1. The contribution of the new triad to the achievement of defense goals

    4106.1.2. Creation of a “new triad”

    4166. 2. Low Yield Nuclear Weapons and the US Nuclear Strategy Review

    4177. Global Partnership to Strengthen the Nonproliferation Regime

    4177.1. G8 initiative at the 2002 Kananaskis meeting

    4187.2. Nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. G8 Declaration at Evian 2003

    4197.3. Global partnership against the proliferation of weapons and materials of mass destruction. 2003 Evian Action Plan

    4218. List of major nonproliferation programs implemented in Russia and CIS countries with US support

    4218.1. Programs of the Ministry of Defense

    4258.2. Programs of the Ministry of Energy

    4318.3. State Department programs

    4348.4. Other programs

    4349 Threats of global conflicts

    4359.1. Demographic and economic imbalance

    4379.2. Fuel and energy imbalance

    4389.3. Territorial and demographic imbalance

    44210. Prerequisites for nuclear disarmament

    44511. Problems of nuclear arms limitation

    45012. Non-proliferation mode status

    45012.1. Crisis of the non-proliferation regime

    45112.2. Threat of nuclear terrorism

    45212.3. Threats of technological progress

    45312.4. Structural features of nuclear weapons and civilian nuclear programs

    45412.5. Production of power-grade plutonium

    45613. Formation of a new system of strategic stability

    45613.1. About the term “strategic stability”

    45613.2. On military-technical criteria for ensuring strategic stability

    45713.3. Some features of the transitional period

    45713.4. New approaches and strengthening of bilateral relations between Russia and the USA

    45813.5. New strategic stability

    45813.6. Nuclear constructive relations




    481Authors in brief

    482End page

    Referring to the site “History of Rosatom – Electronic Library”,
    I agree to the terms of use of the materials presented there.

    Site Rules (hereinafter referred to as the Rules)

    1. General Provisions
      1. These rules define the procedure and conditions for the use of materials posted on the site (hereinafter referred to as the Site), as well as the rules for using materials by the Site and the procedure
        interaction with the Site Administration.
      2. Any materials posted on the Site are objects of intellectual property (objects of copyright or related rights, as well as rights to means of individualization). Administration Rights
        The site on these materials are protected by the law on the rights to the results of intellectual activity.
      3. The use of materials posted on the Site is allowed only with the written consent of the Site Administration or other copyright holder, expressly indicated on a specific material posted on
        Site, or in the immediate vicinity of the specified material.
      4. The right to use and permit the use of materials posted on the Site, owned by other copyright holders than the Site Administration, is allowed with the permission of such copyright holders
        or in accordance with the terms and conditions set by such rights holders. None of the provisions of these Rules gives the rights to third parties to use the materials of the copyright holders expressly indicated on
        specific material posted on the Site, or in the immediate vicinity of the specified material.
      5. These Rules apply to the following users: news agencies, electronic and print media, any individuals and legal entities, as well as
        individual entrepreneurs (hereinafter referred to as “Users”).
    2. Use of materials. Uses for
      1. The use of the Site materials means reproduction, distribution, public display, broadcasting, cable communication, translation, processing, making available to the public and other
        methods of use provided for by the current legislation of the Russian Federation.
      2. Using the materials of the Site without obtaining permission from the Site Administration is not allowed.
      3. Making any changes and / or additions to the materials of the Site is prohibited.
      4. The use of the Site materials is carried out on the basis of agreements with the Site Administration concluded in writing, or on the basis of a written permission issued by the Site Administration.
      5. Any use (non-contractual / without permission) of photo, graphic, video, audio and other materials posted on the Site, owned by the Site Administration and other copyright holders is prohibited
        (to third parties).
      6. The cost of using each specific material or issuing permission for its use is agreed upon by the User and the Site Administration in each specific case.
      7. If it is necessary to use the materials of the Site, the rights to which belong to third parties (owners other than the Site Administration, as expressly indicated on such materials or in
        their immediate vicinity), Users are required to contact the copyright holders of such materials to obtain permission to use the materials.
    3. Obligations of Users when using the materials of the Site
      1. 3. 1. When using the materials of the Site for any purpose with the permission of the Site Administration, a link to the Site is required and is carried out in the following form:
        1. in printed publications or in other forms on tangible media Users are obliged to indicate the source in each case of using materials – the electronic library “History of Rosatom”
        2. on the Internet or other forms of use in electronic form not on tangible media, Users in each case of using materials are required to place a hyperlink to the Site –
          Library “History of Rosatom” (, the hyperlink must be active and direct, when clicking on which the User goes to a specific page of the Site from which the
        3. Link to the source or hyperlink specified in paragraphs. 3.1.1 and 3.1.2. of these Rules, must be placed by the User at the beginning of the text material used, as well as directly
          under the used audio, video, photo, graphic material of the Site Administration.
      2. The font size of the link to the source or hyperlink should not be less than the font size of the text in which the materials of the Site are used, or the font size of the text of the User accompanying the audio,
        video, photographic materials and graphic materials of the Site, as well as the color of the link must be identical to the colors of the links on the Site and must be visible to the User.
      3. Use of materials from the Site obtained from secondary sources (from other copyright holders than the Site Administration, as expressly indicated on such materials or in close proximity to
        them), is possible only with reference to these sources and, if necessary, established by such sources (right holders), with their permission.
      4. It is not allowed to process the original material (work) taken from the Site, including the reduction of the material, its other processing, including the distortion of its meaning.
    4. Third Party Rights, Claims Settlement
      1. Materials, the rights to which belong to third parties, posted on the Site, are posted either with the permission of the copyright holder received by the Site Administration, or, if such use
        not expressly prohibited by the copyright holder, in accordance with the Legislation of the Russian Federation for informational purposes with the obligatory indication of the name of the author whose material is used, and the source of borrowing.
      2. In the event that in the designation of authorship of materials in accordance with clause 4.1. of these Rules contains an error, or if the material is used with an alleged or real violation of rights
        third parties, or in other controversial cases of using intellectual property objects posted on the Site, including in the case when the rights of a third party are violated in one way or another with
        using the Site, the following scheme for the settlement of claims of third parties to the Site Administration is applied:

        1. a claim containing information about the intellectual property object, the rights to which
          to the applicant and which is used illegally through the Site or in violation of the rules of use, or otherwise the rights of the applicant as the owner of the exclusive right to the object of intellectual
          property posted on the Site are violated through the Site, with documents confirming the applicant’s authority, data on the copyright holder and a copy of the power of attorney to act on behalf of
          of the right holder, if the person submitting the claim is not the head of the right holder’s company or directly an individual – the right holder. The claim also includes an address.
          the Site, which contains data that violates the rights, and sets out a full description of the essence of the violation of rights;
        2. The Site Administration undertakes to consider a properly executed claim within a period of at least 5 (five) working days from the date of its receipt by e-mail. The Site Administration undertakes
          the applicant on the results of consideration of his application (claim) by sending an e-mail to the address indicated by the applicant, and also send a written response to the address,
          specified by the applicant (in case of not specifying such a sending address, the obligation to provide a written response to the claim from the Site Administration is removed). including the administration
          has the right to request additional documents, certificates, data confirming the legitimacy of the claim. If the claim is recognized as legitimate, the Site Administration will accept all
          measures necessary to stop the violation of the applicant’s rights and settle the claim;
        3. The Site Administration, in any case, takes all possible measures to satisfy the justified claims of third parties as soon as possible and strive for the fastest possible settlement of all
    5. Other conditions
      1. The Site Administration reserves the right to change these Rules unilaterally at any time without notifying Users. Any changes will be posted on the Site. Changes
        come into force from the moment they are published on the Site.
      2. For all questions regarding the use of the Site materials, Users can contact the Site Administration at the following coordinates: [email protected]
      3. In everything that is not regulated by these Rules regarding the use of materials on the Site, the parties are guided by the provisions of the Legislation of the Russian Federation.


    Cyprus purchased 6 h245M helicopters from Airbus Helicopters » Cargo Aviation News

    • 10:38 – The Moldovan government blocked the resumption of communication with Russia
    • 08:28 – The Pentagon has suspended the acceptance of F-35 stealth fighters due to the presence of Chinese components in it
    • 07:06 – Air France-KLM Group confirms order for A350F cargo aircraft

    28-06-2022 11:30

    The Government of Cyprus has signed a contract with Airbus Helicopters for the purchase of 6 h245M helicopters with 5 bladed propellers for the local national guard Ethnikí Frourá. The contract includes an option for the supply of another 6 machines of this type.

    “Through the implementation of the concluded contract, Ethnikí Frourá will receive at the best price helicopters that meet the operational requirements specified by the General Staff and meet many future tasks typical of light attack helicopters. Capable of operating in very difficult conditions, h245M will increase the ability of Ethnikí Frourá to respond quickly to threats day and night, and the strength and accuracy of their fire will provide our soldiers with effective combat support and important information,” he said. Andreas P. Luca, Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Cyprus.

    “The helicopter project prepared by Ethnikí Frourá / Dioíkisis Aeroporías Kýprou (Air Command) would not have been possible without the strong support of Airbus. That is why I thank Airbus Helicopters for the excellent cooperation and commitment to the project. Our contract signifies the establishment of a long-term relationship with Airbus, a corporation whose products are known for their safety, reliability and the highest production standards,” added Andreas P. Luca.

    “We thank the Cypriot authorities for the trust placed in the h245M. This rotorcraft is already becoming the market leader in light multipurpose attack helicopters. Its users can use it for tactical transport, redeployment of response forces, fire support, combat reconnaissance, casualty evacuation or hostage rescue “There are already five h245M military buyers in Europe, which increases compatibility on the continent. We are seeing a lot of interest in the h245M around the world and are running several promotional campaigns. This creates a very promising prospect for this helicopter,” said Olivier Michalon, Vice President of Airbus Helicopters for global business.

    h245M is already in use by the armed forces of Hungary (20 units), Germany (15), Serbia (9), Thailand (5) and Luxembourg (2). The US Army operates over 460 locally built h245 helicopters (unarmed), designated UH-72 Lakota.

    Andrey Bochkarev

    Be the first to know!

    Enter the required data so as not to miss anything interesting:

    All information sent to us is not disclosed to third parties!

    Private jet rental

    Online Cargo Tracking

    • Today
    • Readable

    We are in social networks

    • Vkontakte
    • Facebook
    • OK. ru

    Rental and sale of aircraft

    Aviation in the modern world

    Aviation is a large-scale topic, which is of interest as people professionally employed in
    this area, as well as ordinary tourists. Aviation news is of interest to travelers,
    going on a trip, people following modern developments in this
    industry, as well as a wide range of readers who care about what is happening in
    the modern world.

    Aviation news today

    There are many portals on the web that publish aviation news today.
    But it is on Aircargonews that you will find the most detailed coverage of events in
    areas of private, cargo aviation, stories about the latest incidents.
    The portal pays special attention to civil aviation news, which traditionally
    arouse increased interest. The authors of Aircargonews articles are among the first
    respond to all events in this area, guided by the rule that news
    are only fresh.

    If you are interested in cargo aviation, you can also find out about developments in this area
    read on this site. Reviews of the most famous cargo aircraft, system news
    cargo management, interesting information about transportation in different countries, information
    you will find all this on Aircargonews.

    Aviation news is interesting

    Reading aviation news is relevant, informative and simply interesting. On the site
    published not only business materials, but also entertaining articles that
    even readers who are far from the topic of aviation will like it.

    In addition, the “Reports” section contains statistical data on the operation of airports
    and air carriers. Such materials are always in demand among specialists of a narrow

    All articles are written in easy language, understandable to a wide range of readers. For the portal
    journalists from different countries of the former USSR write, which makes the published materials
    unique and varied.