Parts of a brick wall: How to Build a Brick Wall (with Pictures)

Anatomy of a Brick Veneer Wall

Brick is just about the oldest building material. Small, modular, easily made from local materials, durable and requiring low maintenance, brick has been a favored way to build for centuries.

Brick has been used traditionally as a structural material. By creating walls and piers of brick, architects and builders were able to construct large and small buildings, from the humble home to the cavernous Colosseum.


But brick has always been a labor-intensive building material. As the cost of labor increased, brick became more and more a material reserved for higher-end houses. And as brick construction became more costly, we started to use brick less as structure and more as skin.

The result has been the development of the brick veneer wall and the treatment of brick as a two-dimensional, decorative element. This makes sense from a cost standpoint — but a brick veneer can harken back to its past as a structural material.

Bud Dietrich, AIA

Anatomy of a Brick Veneer Wall

The brick is a single wythe (layer) deep. This is unlike older, structural brick walls, which had multiple wythes for strength. The brick wall sits atop the foundation wall and is separated from the wood frame structure by an air space of one inch. The air space allows any water that penetrates the brick to fall and weep out through weep holes at the lowest course of brick above grade.

In a sense, a brick veneer wall acts like a rain screen. Brick is porous, and chances are that water can find its way through cracks in mortar joints and elsewhere. As we all know, if water can get in, it will. So having a way to get rid of this water is very important.

Now that we understand the basics of a brick veneer wall, let’s look at the different patterns of brick coursing we can have. A course is a horizontal layer of bricks.

Bud Dietrich, AIA

Running bond has to be the most common type of brick coursing we see. It’s essentially courses of brick, one atop the other, staggered so that the vertical mortar joints don’t line up. This is a traditional brick pattern, with staggered joints that provided stability and strength to a wall.

Typically, all of the bricks will be the same texture, size and color in a running bond pattern. There are variations to this:

  • A one-third running bond, sometimes called a stretcher raking bond, has the vertical joint set away from the middle of the bricks above and below.
  • A header bond has the same overall pattern as a running bond but using the brick header (short side) in lieu of brick stretcher (long side) as the exposed surface.

Bud Dietrich, AIA

Stack bond is the most contemporary brick pattern as it’s the pattern that treats the brick more as a screen than as a wall. In this pattern, vertical and horizontal joints are aligned. Doing so creates a pattern that, while visually lighter than the traditional running bond, is quite a bit weaker.

Bud Dietrich, AIA

Common bond is a brick pattern that very closely aligns with how a traditional, load-bearing brick wall would appear. A traditional brick wall was composed of several wythes (layers) of brick, one behind the other. Every few courses, the bricks would be laid perpendicular to the wall. This course tied together the wythes and gave the wall structural stability.

The result is that the brick ends, or headers, are exposed for view. The number of courses of stretchers (the long side of a brick) between each header course would determine if the pattern is an American bond, Scottish bond, English bond or some other style. Also, while the header course is all headers in this illustration, it can be a combination of headers and stretchers to create a stretcher bond pattern.

A nice design element of a common bond pattern is the ability to change the brick color or texture or both at the header course. This is certainly something to play around with to get the design just the way you want.

Bud Dietrich, AIA

A Flemish Cross bond is a brick pattern that introduces a regular pattern of crosses, diamonds or diagonals into the overall brick wall. This can be a really fun way to design with brick. In fact, one of the happiest buildings I’ve ever seen is the Doges Palace in Venice, with its pink brick in a diagonal pattern.

Whether introduced in a different color or set forward of the overall brick wall to create shadows, whether in a large scale pattern or very finely set, patterns like this introduce a bit of whimsy and style to what could otherwise be just a big, bland wall of brick.

Bud Dietrich, AIA

We usually see flush mortar joints, but there are many other ways to treat the way bricks are joined through mortar. In this illustration, the joints are raked — that is, set back from the face of the brick. You can take this a bit further with a stripped joint, which is similar to a raked joint, but the mortar is “stripped” even further back from the brick faces.

Some types of mortar joints include struck (mortar is angled from top to bottom), weathered (mortar is angled from bottom to top) and concave (mortar is curved inward). Each has its own distinctive visual affect. In fact, Frank Lloyd Wright used raked (on the horizontal joints) and flush (on the vertical joints) to achieve his trademark emphasis on the horizontal line.


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All Types Of Bonds In Brick Masonry- Different Parts Of Bricks With Picture

To know the types of bonds in brick masonry in the wall clearly, you must have to know the different parts of bricks.

The name of different parts of brick will make you easy to understand and remember the different types of bonds in brickwork.

So at first let us learn some definitions related to bonds In bricks. i.e parts of bricks. For a clear understanding keep watch on the image, I have drawn below. 

Table of Contents

Different parts of bricks



This is a brick laid with its length parallel to the face or direction of the wall.



This is a brick laid with its breadth or width parallel to the face or direction of the wall.



The edges formed by the intersection of plane surfaces of brick are called the arrises and they should be sharp square and free from damage.



The lower surface of the brick when laid nat is known as a bed.



The vertical joints separating the bricks in either length or cross directions are known as perpends and for a good bond, the perpends in alternate courses should vertically one above the other.



The horizontal distance between the vertical joints in successive courses is termed as lap and for a good bond, it should be one-fourth of the length of a brick.



A piece of brick which is used to close up the bond at the end of brick courses is known as closer and it helps in preventing the joints of successive courses to come in a vertical line.

Generally, the closer is not specially molded, but it is prepared by the mason with the edge of the trowel. Queen closer and king closer are generally used. 



These are the broken piece of bricks with respect to the length, half-bat, and three by four bat are generally used for bonds in bricks.



A frog is a mark of depth above 10 mm to 20 mm which is placed on the face of a brick to form a key for holding the mortar.

On frogs, the wire cut bricks are avoided. Generally, brick is provided frogs on both faces. But bricks made with hand has only one frog.

Types of bonds in brick masonry


Stretcher bond

Stretcher bond is the one in which all the bricks are laid as stretchers on the faces wall. The length of the bricks is thus along the direction of the wall.

This pattern is used only for those walls which have a thickness of half brick (i.e. 5″ wall). These types of bonds are used as a partition wall and impossible to provide if the thickness is more like 10″ or 15″ (Inches).


Header bond

Header bond is the one in which all the bricks are laid as a header on the faces of the wall. The width of the bricks is thus along the direction of the wall.

These types of bonds are used when the thickness of the wall is equal to one brick.


English bond

This is the most commonly used bond, for all wall thicknesses. This bond is considered to be the strongest.

The band consists of alternate courses of headers and stretchers. In this bond, the vertical joint of the header courses come over each other.


Flemish bond

The bond has an alternate header and stretcher combination is known as Flemish bond. Every next course starts with a header at the quoin header.

To form face lap Quoin closer are placed next to the quoin header in every other course.

Every header is centrally supported over the stretcher bond. This type of bond can further be classified as a single Flemish bond and a double Flemish bond.


English cross bonds

This is the modification of English bond, used to improve the appearance of the wall. This bond combines the requirement of beauty and strength.

Special features of

english cross bonds

Alternate courses of headers and stretchers are provided as in English bond.

Quoin closers are placed just after quoin headers. 

A header is introduced next to the quoin stretchers in every alternate stretcher courses.


Dutch bonds

This is another modified form of English bond. The corner of the wall elongated in this types of bond.

Special features of Dutch bond

Alternate courses of headers and stretchers are provided as in English bond.

Every stretcher course starts at the quoin with a three-quarter bat.  The header is placed always just next to the three-quarter brickbat provided at the quoin in each and every alternate stretcher course.


Garden wall bonds

This type of bond is used for the construction of garden walls, boundary walls,   compound walls, where the thickness of the wall is one brick thick and the height does not exceed 2 meters.

This type of bond is not so strong as compared to Engish bond, but it is more attractive.

Due to this reason, it is sometimes used in the construction of outer leaves of cavity walls in the garden wall bond, the header course is provided only after three to five stretcher courses.


Zigzag bond

In this bond, the bricks are laid in zigzag position as shown in the figure. This bond is commonly used in making the ornamental panels in brick flooring. 


Raking bond

This type of bond is used in thick walls with an inclination of bricks to the direction of the wall.

Due to this, the longitudinal stability of thick was built in English bond is very much increased. This bond is introduced at certain intervals along with the height of the wall.

Special features of raking bond.

The bricks are arranged in an inclined direction, in the space between the external stretches of a wall. 

The raking slope or inclination should be in the opposite direction in alternate courses of raking bonds.

Raking bond is not provided in successive courses. It is provided in a regular interval of four to eight courses in height of the wall. The raking course is generally provided between the two stretcher courses of the wall.

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I Hope friends, you liked my written article on “types of bonds in brick masonry” and remains helpful.

Further if you have any question please comment below.

Elements of masonry – Bricklayer-info

Consider the basic terms that define the elements of masonry. A brick or stone of a rectangular shape has six faces. Two large facets of a brick (stone), located on opposite sides, are called the upper and lower bed.

They lay bricks on mortar.

Long sides are called – spoons , short – poke.

Laying is carried out in horizontal rows, laying the stones flat, i.e. on the bed.

In some cases, for example, when laying cornices or thin (1/4 brick) partitions – on the edge, i.e. on the side spoon edge.

The outer rows of bricks or stones in a row of masonry, forming the surface of the masonry, are called versts . Distinguish versts external, located on the side of the facade of the building and internal – from the inside of the room.

A row of brickwork, facing the outer surface of the wall with a long side face, is called a spoon, and a short face is called a bonder.

Bricks and stones laid between the outer and inner versts are called backfill .

Masonry elements:

1 – outer verst, 2 – bonder row, 3 – facade, 9 0009 4 – vertical transverse seam, 5 – vertical longitudinal seam, 6 – horizontal seam (bed), 7 – first row, 8 – second row, 9 – backfill, 10 – inner verst, 11 – spoon row.

The height of the rows of masonry consists of the height of the stones (bricks) and the thickness of the horizontal joints 10…15mm (average within the storey – 12mm).

One of the masonry elements are chisels laid out in places of temporary masonry interruption. They are needed so that, with further continuation of work, it would be possible to ensure the dressing of the new part of the masonry with the previously erected one.

Penetrations are made as sloping (oblique) and vertical.

The sheer wall, compared to the vertical one, provides a better connection between the connected parts of the walls. For the reliability of the masonry connection, steel reinforcement with a diameter of 8 mm is laid in vertical bars every 2 m in height, including at the level of each floor. Beacons are laid out on the outer verst with beacons in the form of small sections of walls up to six rows high, used to secure mooring cords.

When performing complex masonry, additional elements of architectural and functional significance appear.

1 – niche; 2 – ledge; 3 – semi-column; 4 – quarters; 5 – wall; 6 – pilaster; 7 – sawn-off shotgun; 8 – base;

Niche – recesses in the wall, intended for the installation of built-in cabinets, electrical devices, etc. They are laid out in multiples of half a brick.

Ledge – masonry, vertically offset relative to the main plane of the wall.

Partition wall – in wall structures with window and door openings, this is the name of the masonry section located between two adjacent openings. They can be laid out in the form of simple rectangular pillars, or they can be laid out in the form of pillars with quarters in which door and window blocks will be attached.

Pilasters – rectangular pillars that protrude from the common front plane of the wall, laid out in a dressing with it.

Cutoff – done with an indent from the front of the masonry when moving from the basement to the wall, with a decrease in the thickness of the walls in the upper floors of buildings, etc. Above the edge, the wall has a smaller thickness. The last row of masonry before cutting should be bonded.

Walls that do not have protruding elements are called smooth.

Overlap – a fragment of masonry, in which its next row is laid with a ledge on the front surface. The width of the overlap should not exceed 1/3 of the length of the brick in each row. Corbels, cornices and other elements that divide the facade vertically are formed as a result of several rows of masonry with a ledge.

Overlapping in several rows when constructing a complex cornice:

All the above concepts about masonry elements equally apply to all types of stone small-piece materials: brick, ceramic or concrete stones, rubble stone, small blocks of natural stone.

Bricklaying: building walls with bricks

Brick buildings are all around us. The use of this material for construction has been learned since ancient times. Raw brick houses were found in the oldest settlement of the Neolithic people – Chatal-Guyuk. The technology for the construction of structures made of bricks was called masonry. Brickwork is used in mass building and in the private sector. People who are professionally engaged in masonry are called masons. You can learn this craft on your own, then when working in the country you will not have to resort to the services of professionals.

The process of learning to become a bricklayer is complex and requires many hours of practice. In this article we will try to reveal all the main issues related to brickwork. Knowledge of technological processes and tools will be useful not only for those who are going to master bricklaying in practice, but also for those who plan to build a house with the involvement of hired teams.

For DIY masonry practice, it is best to start with a small facility such as a brick smokehouse, barbecue or small shed. It is very important to get comfortable with the basic tools of a bricklayer. All tools can be divided into those that are used to prepare the mortar, to apply the mortar to the brick and measuring devices.

  • Concrete mixer (concrete mixer) – construction equipment for the preparation of building mixtures. In order not to spend a lot of time and effort on preparing solutions, concrete mixers are used. Concrete mixers are manual (set in motion by turning the handle) and electric (driven by an electric motor). Electric stirrers can work without human intervention. Constant rotation does not allow the solution to solidify. The drum itself can rotate, while the blades remain motionless. In some designs, the blades rotate while the drum is stationary.

A frame with wheels makes it easier to transport the mixer across the construction site or summer cottage

In the design of the concrete mixer, a geared motor or a crown is used as a drive mechanism.

  • Drill Mixer makes it easy to mix mortar. The drill can operate at low speeds with high torque and has a special stirrer attachment.
  • Trowel (trowel) – a hand tool in the form of a spatula, designed to manipulate substances of a thick substance – solutions. The mason’s trowel consists of a canvas sanded on both sides. The handle is made of plastic or wood. The handle is connected to the canvas with a special bracket. At the end of the handle there may be a special striker for tapping bricks during laying. The dimensions of the trowel depend on the specifics of the work from 150×100 mm to 200×100 mm.

Trowel with wooden handle and steel head at the end

The trowel handle makes it easy to use the tool. The inclined handle on the arm 4 – 5 cm allows you to avoid getting residual mortar on your hands when tapping.

  • Bricklayer’s pick is a tool for splitting and shrinking bricks. On one side of the head is a striker, on the other – a sharp blade. The handle is either wooden or plastic with rubber inserts. Rubber protects the hand from vibration, wood is more pleasant to the touch, but with intensive work it quickly becomes unusable and needs to be replaced.

Rubber coating reduces vibration when working with a mason’s pick

  • Jointing is a tool designed for jointing. Joints are equipped with plastic and wooden handles. They have a narrow pen, which is given various shapes (convex, straight oblique, triangular, etc. ). The joint pen allows you to penetrate the seam and level it after laying.

Joint is used for mashing the seam

  • Mortar shovel is designed to supply mortar to masonry or to prepare a mixture. The blade has the shape of a scoop, which facilitates the mixing of the solution. The handle is made of wood or fiberglass. At the end of the handle, a D-shaped handle is sometimes placed for ease of operation.

Large bucket capacity makes it easy to pour mortar

  • Mortar containers are containers for mixing. There are several types depending on the size. Plastic containers can be round or rectangular, usually their volume does not exceed 100 liters. To prepare a large amount of solution, a metal container from 200 liters is suitable.

Mortar container equipped with sling rings for movement with cranes or other lifting equipment

  • Water container – water is required to prepare the solution, for convenience it can be poured into a special container. A bucket or plastic container is suitable for this.
  • Corded Plumb – refers to measuring devices for checking straight vertical lines (plumb line) on corners, walls and poles. A plumb bob is a steel cone-shaped weight on a rope.

Bricklayer’s plumb bob weighs 1-2 kg, lighter products are used in calm weather. Inside the level there is an air bubble, which, by its movement, shows how much the surface has deviated from the horizontal or vertical

  • Rule is a scale bar. The rule is made of wood or aluminum. The rule is used to measure the evenness of walls.
  • Do not use only one measuring device and neglect others. Level, plumb and rule are used together, complementing each other.

    • Ordering is a steel or wooden lath for measuring masonry rows. The order is attached at the corners and allows you to measure the height of the next row along with the seam.
    • Dock – nylon thread or fishing line, which is stretched between two corners to control straight lines in rows of masonry.

    Before we start talking about masonry itself, a few words about terminology should be said. The gaps between the brick blocks are called seams , the seams are filled with mortar and connect all the elements of the building into a monolithic structure. Seams are vertical and horizontal. Horizontal joints are made continuous, in most masonry they are parallel to the ground and the horizon line. The only exceptions are specific types of masonry (arches). The vertical seam should not be continuous, if there is a continuous vertical seam in the wall, then the masonry technology has been violated. Professionals call the method of placing bricks suture dressing .

    All brick surfaces have their own names. All of these terms are used by professional masons. The bed is the upper and lower planes of the brick. Spoon – two long side planes. The poke is located at the ends of the product. The rows in which the bricks are joined by poking are called spoon rows (by the name of the surface on the front side). If the bricks touch with pokes, then such a row is called a spoon row.

    The ligation of the seams allows a monolithic structure to be formed. The upper rows fix the lower ones. There are a large number of different dressing systems, but the most common are single-row, three-row and multi-row.

    • Single-row ligation a method of creating a monolithic brick structure, when there is an alternation of spoon and bond rows.
    • 3-row tie – suitable for building bollards that need to be stabilized. With this method of laying, three rows of spoon rows are tied with one bonder.
    • Multi-row dressing differs from three-row dressing in the number of rows to be tied, there may be 5 or 6 rows.

    Decorative masonry – spoon and bond bricks alternate, while the bond brick has a different color

    Decorative masonry is allowed on the front side, when bricks of different colors form a certain pattern.

    The seams between blocks of bricks are made differently depending on the purpose of the masonry.

    • Hollow joint is a rough version of the joints, designed for subsequent plastering. Between the bricks leave a space unfilled with cement. When plastering, the mortar enters this space and improves adhesion to the surface.
    • Undercut is used to create a smooth brick surface. The solution fills completely the entire space to the edge. The undercut is used for cladding.
    • Jointing – additional processing of the seam, which includes giving the seam a certain shape. Often a special tool is used for this – stitching. Professional masons make their own jointing. Depending on the shape of the tool, the seam is obtained, convex, concave, oblique, triangular or double-cut.

    Masonry is affected by the thickness of the walls being built. In the central and northern regions of our country, two or two and a half bricks are used for the outer walls of houses. If the building is two-story, then the thickness of the walls on the second floor can be made narrower. At the same time, there are a large number of variations of masonry of different thicknesses.

    Types of masonry depending on wall thickness

    • Half a brick (15 cm) – bricks are laid in a row one after another. This thickness is allowed when building partitions inside the house to divide the space into rooms. In this case, the wall should not be load-bearing. Masonry in one brick can be strengthened with reinforcement.
    • In one brick (25 cm) – the bars are adjacent to each other with spoons. Such masonry is used for load-bearing walls in the interior of a house or extension.
    • One and a half bricks (38 cm) can be used to build the outer walls of a house for one-story structures. In this type of masonry, two layers of bricks are used. The inner one is closed with spoons, the outer one with pokes, as when laying half a brick. With this method of building walls, a layer of insulating or soundproofing material can go between the two layers.
    • In two bricks (51 cm) – two layers of a brick wall go one after another. In both cases, the bars are closed with spoons.
    • Two and a half bricks (64 cm) – the wall consists of three layers of bricks. Two rows are closed with spoons, one with pokes. This wall thickness is suitable for capital private houses. For the outer layer, facing bricks can be used, and for the inner ones – drill. The wall can provide high-quality thermal insulation and strength, but due to the large consumption of bricks and mortar, the house will cost much more.

    Brick in the masonry is only half the battle. A solution is a substance that performs a binding function. After application, the thick substance hardens and acquires strength. Depending on the composition, the types of solutions are distinguished.

    • Cement is the most commonly used type of mortar, it contains water, sand and masonry cement. The preparation of the mortar usually takes place right at the construction site, in which case auxiliary tools (concrete mixers, mixer drills) come to the rescue. The use of cement mortar allows you to create solid solid structures, while poor-quality ingredients or a violation of technology can lead to cracks and damage to the integrity of the material.

    Cement production technologies vary, the most popular variety is Portland cement. It consists of gypsum, crushed cement clinker and calcium silicates. The name of cement is associated with the English island of Portland, where a similar color stone is mined.

    • Limestone is prepared from sand, water and quicklime. The material is used for the construction of partitions indoors, as the substance has poor resistance to moisture. In this case, the resulting solution has a high plasticity.

    Building mortars in ancient Greek and Roman cities were made from limestone. The Romans added additional ingredients to lime solutions that increased resistance to moisture. Some of these buildings have survived to this day.

    • Lime-cement mortar includes both cement and lime. Combines the beneficial properties of two types of solutions.
    • Stove Mortar is designed for oven masonry and outdoor barbecue grills. Typically, furnace mortar is used for the inside of the firebox. For preparation, a mixture of sand and clay is used, which undergoes a long preliminary soaking.
    • Dry masonry mixes – in fact, they are a ready-made mortar – diluted with water and you can work. The components are in the optimal proportion, so it is difficult to violate the cooking technology. Masonry mixtures contain additional ingredients that increase the characteristics of the final product (strength, density, plasticity, frost resistance).

    When using cement, the proportion may often change in favor of sand. When trying to save money, cement is not reported to the solution. As a result, the mixture loses strength and the solidified solution may crack. With the finished mixture, such a bias cannot occur.

    Keeping the correct proportions is an important part of a good mortar. There are no universal recipes, you have to mix depending on the composition. For mixtures with lime, 4 parts of sand to 1 part of lime are usually used. For cement mortar, the brand of cement is important. The brand is indicated by the letter “M”, the number is the compressive strength. For M 500, you will need to make a proportion of 1 part of cement and 4 of sand. For M 300 – 1:3. The amount of liquid affects the consistency of the solution. The master proceeds from climatic conditions – in hot weather they make more liquid cement so that it does not set longer. Also, the density of the solution is selected for a specific masonry and types of bricks. Beginners are advised to add water to the future solution in small doses to make it easier to find the right consistency.

    To obtain solutions of different shades, various additional ingredients can be added to it. For example, for a black solution, soot is added during mixing.

    The cooking procedure itself can be carried out both manually and using specialized equipment and tools. Manual kneading is usually done with conventional shovels. All ingredients must be purified. The sand must have a fraction of more than 2 mm and must first go through the screening process. Unscreened sand may contain pebbles and debris, which will create problems for the bricklayer. The finished solution must be periodically mixed to slow down the setting process.

    Many factors influence the consumption of the solution. For 1 sq.m of masonry, 75 liters of mortar will be required if the thickness of the masonry is one brick. The unprofessionalism of the worker and the structure of the brick can increase the consumption (in a hollow brick, the solution flows into the holes). The quality of the brick and cracks also affect, irregularities will require more mixture.

    Bricklaying can be done in different ways. Bricklayers have developed two main methods: back-to-back and back-to-back.

    • Back-to-back – with this method of laying, the mortar is laid on the bed of the underlying brick. The brick of the upper row is placed and, with the help of its weight, drives the mortar onto the vertical plane of the neighboring bar. Excess solution is removed with a trowel. When applying the solution, it is necessary to indent from the front side.
    • Push-in is a method in which mortar is forced onto the vertical surface of an adjacent brick using a trowel edge. The solution is placed on the bed with an indent of 10 mm from the front side, while being leveled on the bed. There is a version of this method when the mortar is applied to the poke of the brick being laid (when laying poke to poke in spoon rows)

    Back-to-back laying Back-to-back laying

    Professional masons sometimes practice this method of laying, when the mortar is applied at once, counting on 3-4 bricks. Beginners are advised to apply the mixture for one brick, because due to the lack of skills, the applied mortar will have time to dry.

    Brick wall erection technology

    Wall erection begins after the completion of work on the foundation, laying the first layer requires a lot of experience and is a responsible event on which all further construction will depend.

    • Bricklaying is a step recommended for beginners. Professional masons usually do without it. The first row of bricks is laid out without mortar on the foundation.

    Roofing material is laid between the foundation and the brick.

    • Aligning the levels – a rope or fishing line is used for leveling – a mooring, it is stretched between two corners and ensures alignment on the front side. Sometimes the mooring is stretched both on the inside and on the outside. Orders are fixed from the corners – this is a scale that allows you to mark rows of bricks with seams.
    • The laying of the first row is corrected using a level. In order not to measure the indent from the front side each time, a steel bar is placed on the edge of the brick.

    It is useful to have several bars of different lengths in stock. A long bar is laid on the front side. Short ones can be used to fill a vertical seam.

    • Lay the next rows from the corner. The mooring is pulled to a new level. Each brick is controlled by a level. Shrinkage is done with the back of a trowel or a bricklayer’s hammer.
    • Reinforcement – reinforcement is added to the masonry every 2-3 rows. It should not exceed the width of the seam in diameter.
    • After the masonry is completed, when working with the outer layer of the wall, the joints are grouted.

    Bricklaying is a complex and time-consuming procedure. The complexity of the masonry depends on the thickness of the walls and the methods of dressing.