How to start building a brick wall: Step by Step Guide – Rubi Blog USA

Step by Step Guide – Rubi Blog USA

During COVID, many more people became interested in DIY projects. Over fifty percent of Americans feel like their houses could use some work, but many of them do not know how to even get started with building a brick wall.

In this article will explain the steps for building a wall and how to get started on a brick-laying project. By the end, you should understand how to build a wall without the stress of needing to hire anyone else.

Building a Brick Wall in a Few Easy Steps

Here are the basics to get started on building a brick wall. Make sure you have the following materials (and permissions):

  • Trowel
  • Hammer
  • Spirit Level
  • Shovel
  • Bricks
  • String and nails

1. Prepare the Materials

Work out how many bricks you are going to need before starting. Either estimate or calculate based on their size. Do not neglect to include the thickness of the mortar, which tends to be approximately 10mm.

2. Mix the Mortar

Using a shovel or mortar mixer on a tarp, mix together the amount of mortar you think you will need. Five parts sand to one part cement should do. Mix this with water until the mixture has a smooth, creamy texture that you can still manipulate.

3. Create a Foundation

Dig a trench for the foundation you intend to lay. It should be at least a foot deep and wide. Fill this with mortar and check to ensure you have a solid, level base for the brick wall.

4. Create a String Line

Using string and other material, create a straight line where you wish to build this brick wall. Bear in mind you can also lift this line off the ground later if you want to make sure your wall is being built straight.

Unless you want a crinkle crankle wall, this is perfect for securing the line you want along the ground.

5. Lay the Mortar

Once the foundation has dried, place a layer of mortar where the string runs along the ground. This should be a little bit thinner than the individual bricks you will lay, as the mortar will spread when you put the bricks on top of it.

6. Start Laying the Bricks

Lay the bricks down end to end on the mortar, putting approximately 10mm of mortar between each brick to act as a binder. Wait for these to dry.

7. Cut the Bricks for the Second Row

For the second row, you will want to offset the bricks by half a brick. If the wall is not a loop, you will need to cut one of the bricks in half for each row. Do this with a chisel, giving it a swift tap in the middle of the brick, using a hammer.

Continue this upwards until you have enough as many rows as you need.

8. Topping the Wall

At the top, you will want to investigate brick wall topping methods. You may wish to tile it, or it could be that you want to use more mortar to secure the roof to the wall.

One option would be to incorporate a soldier course, using vertical bricks to create a different texture for the top of the wall. You can also use this at the lintel of windows or doors to highlight them.

Or, you could have a section where you rotate the bricks to point out from the wall in either direction. This creates a small “roof” for the wall and a different pattern.

Other Options

During the wall-building process, you have several more options to customize your wall. Let’s take a look at some of them.

Joining Patterns

You could create a double-brick wall by alternating each brick so that it runs straight through the wall, building two bricks thick. This is not only appealing to the eye but also makes a stronger brick wall, as it straddles a larger footprint.


Without pillars, a brick wall that is quite long will not be able to hold itself up unless you build it in a crinkle crankle style. By adding a pillar, you provide a support structure in the form of a small, wide square wall. You can also top these pillars with specialist bricks that produce a visually pleasing cap to the structure.

Bespoke Bricks

If you want a specific style for your wall, you can aim to have bespoke bricks created. These can be anything from reclaimed or tumbled bricks that have a worn texture, to unique shapes and styles. You can use these to create a wall that is perfect for you.


Remember that you can use differently-colored tiles to customize a brick wall. Using slate tiles, for example, can add a dark veneer to an otherwise red-brick frontage. Or in a bathroom, using ceramic tiles can create a smooth effect that is easy to clean.

What Else Do I Need to Know?

Now you should have a good idea of how to go about building a brick wall. But before you get started, you are going to need the right tools. Lucky for you, we are here to help!

We offer everything you need to get started on a DIY project, so do not hesitate to ask us if you have any questions. If you want to talk to us about what we offer, you need only ask. So pick up the phone today and get started on the project of your dreams!

How To Build Brick Walls (The Right Way)

In this post, you’re going to learn how to build brick walls on a floor of a building.

If you:

  • Are supervising a building construction project.
  • Want to learn the right way of constructing brick walls


  • Are eager to maintain the quality of brickworks…

Then you’re going to love this post.

In fact, we follow the exact same process to maintain the quality of brickwork in our projects.

Here is the proof:

So, let’s start to learn without further ado.

Here is the process…

Make The Brick Layout

A brick layout is a single layer of bricks that is used to mark all the walls on a floor.

To make the brick layout:

First, Soak Bricks

Brick-soaking is a process that involves dumping bricks in a tank by ensuring they are full-flooded by water for at least 12 hours.

And, remove them one hour before using.

For this purpose, I make a water tank in my project with 5″ thick brick walls.

The inside of the wall is plastered with Net Cement Finishing to prevent water penetration.

The question is, why should you soak bricks?


  • Dry bricks soak water from mortar. And thus prohibits the hydration process of cement.
  • Bricks may contain soluble harmful ingredients. Such as salt, Uria, etc.

Note: Not all types of bricks need to be soaked in this way. Such as concrete blocks.

At The Same Time, Wash the Sand

To prepare mortar, use sand that is free from dirt, mud, and salt.

That means washed sand should be used to build brick walls.

If you can purchase washed sand directly from suppliers, that’s good.

If you can’t, you should wash the sand before use.

To wash the sand – like soaking bricks – I make a separate water tank.

Whenever I receive sand from a supplier, I make them screened and put it directly into the tank.

Caution: Wet sand shouldn’t be used to make mortar. So, after washing, allow them to dry.

Next, Study The Architectural Plan

An architectural plan shows all the brick walls on a floor.

Study the drawing if there is anything you need to understand further.

If you find any mismatching, consult with the architect.

Sometimes owners change some walls in apartments. You need to consider those changes too.

Once you’re familiar with architectural drawing, now…


Prepare Mortar For The Brick Layout

We use cement mortar for brickwork.

It’s just a mix of cement, sand, and water.

For a 5” thick brick wall, we normally use a 1:5 cement-sand ratio.

And, for 10″ thick brick walls, the cement-sand ratio, we use, is 1:6.

Note: The cement-sand ratio of mortar depends mostly on the type of bricks. So, consult with the brick supplier or the structural engineer.

The FM (Fineness Modulus) of the sand should be 1.20 to 1.50.

And, it is better to use masonry cement in mortar.

Once the mortar is prepared….

Place A Thin Rope Along The Wall

The rope is placed to maintain the straightness of the wall.

And, it is done following the architectural plan.

Now, clean the concrete floor along the rope. No loose concrete should be allowed below the bricklayer.

Here, you need to ensure one thing. That is the level of the first layer of bricks.

As you know, it is sometimes not possible to maintain the level of a floor during slab casting.

But, you should make the first layer of bricks truly horizontal.



  • Truly horizontal layers of bricks increase the aesthetic look of the brick wall.
  • It also somehow increases the compressive strength of walls.

If you find the floor unlevelled, make a CC casting below the bricklayer.

After That:

Keep the Door Openings.

The door opening is kept to install a door frame and eventually the door shutter.

You need to keep these openings during brick layout making.

But how to keep that in a brick layout?

Let’s say you have a door in your architectural plan with a width of 3’-4”.

For that, you need to keep the door opening bigger than the door frame width.

Because you’ll insert and fit the frame within the opening.

But how big?

Normally, ¾” is enough on each side.

For both sides, it’ll be 1½”.

So, the door opening in a brick layout should be,

= 3′-4” + ¾” + ¾”

= 3′-5½”

But here is the thing.

See the plan below:

In the plan above, the door is placed beside a wall.

If the wall is plaster-finished, then it is ok. You can keep the default gap. That is ¾” clear on each side.

But, if the wall is a toilet’s wall or a kitchen’s wall, then you need to think more about that.

Because the wall will be finished with tiles.

As we know, tiles take more thickness than plaster.

So you should keep a bigger gap for the door opening on the wall’s side.

And, it is 1½”.

Otherwise, tiles will end up on the door frame. That will look ugly.


Keep Full-Height Window Openings

You may have some windows in your drawing that start directly from the floor.

That means, there will be no wall.

You need to keep openings for those during brick layout work.


Not a big deal.

Suppose, the width of a window is 5 feet.

For that, keep the opening 5′-1″.


Because you’ll plaster on both sides of the opening.

After plastering, the width will be exactly 5’-0”.

With this, our brick layout is completed.

But, you need to be prepared for future work. After all, you are an engineer.

So, keep some holes in the brick layout of the periphery walls.


Because you will need these holes to make stages for plastering on the outer surface of walls.

Finally, Check The Brick Layout.

You don’t want to demolish any wall after making that.


Because that is:

  • Cost-consuming
  • Time-consuming

So before going to build brick walls, check these:

Checkpoint-1: Size Of Each Room

You’ll get the dimensions of each room in the architectural plan.

Keep a measuring tape in your hand and check the size of each room.

But, how to check?

Let’s say, the dimension of a bedroom is shown as 10′ x 12′ in the drawing.

This is the inner dimension of the room.

But, while checking take the outer-to-outer dimension of the room.

Let’s see how:

Suppose, the width of our room is 10 feet.

So, the outer-to-outer dimension will be 10′-10″ (the wall thickness is 5″ here).

Why am I suggesting this?

Because the width of bricks we use isn’t exactly 5 inches.

The standard size of a brick is 9½” x 4½” x 2¾”.

With this, the room size will differ.

Checkpoint-2: Right-angle Of Rooms

All the rooms should be at right angles.

That means, all the corners of a room should be at 90°.



  • Rooms are normally designed either rectangular or square.
  • The floor tiles won’t fit properly.
  • It’ll take more mortar to make corners of the room at 90 degrees during plastering.

So, it’s better to check this before going to make actual brick walls.

But how to check the right angle of rooms?

You can use a long try square.

Just place the tool in a corner with two adjacent walls.

Alternatively, you can check the dimensions on both sides of the room.

Checkpoint-3: Check the Straightness Of the Wall

I normally do this for long walls.

Place a rope on one side along the long wall.

And, check if the wall is aligned with the rope.

Checkpoint-4: Check The Vertical Alignment Of the Outer Walls

In a building, you’ll have many floors.

The periphery walls of all the floors should be aligned vertically.



  • The building should be truly vertical
  • Inclined walls will consume more mortar for outer plaster.

But, how can you check this?

Place the plumb bob in a periphery wall from the upper floor to the floor below.

And take dimensions at different levels.

Checkpoint-5: Check If There Are Any Changes By The Apartment Owner

Let’s face it.

Owners often make changes to walls or rooms in apartments.

You just need to collect those changes before going to build brick walls.

After collecting, make changes as they want.

NOTE: It’s better not to take any wall changes after the roof slab casting of the floor.

With this, the brick layout work is completed.

You can now proceed to…

Build Brick Walls

To build brick walls, you just need to lay bricks on the brick layout – one above another.

For that:

First, Gather Soaked Bricks On The Floor.

I’ve talked about the brick soaking above.

Keep in mind that brick soaking should be discontinued at least one hour before use.

Otherwise, the water from bricks will increase the water-cement ratio of the mortar.

And thus you’ll have difficulties keeping brick layers in line.

But, you shouldn’t use dry bricks either.

Because dry bricks will soak water from the cement mortar and thus weaken the mortar.

Next, Prepare Mortar For Building Brick Walls.

To prepare mortar, mix the cement and sand in a dry state in such a way that they form a uniform color.

And then add the required water to the mix.

Caution: Don’t prepare all the required mortar for the day at a time. Mix cement and sand in a dry state. And, add water to the required quantity of dry mix that you can use within one hour.

After that, Spread Mortar On The Brick Layout.

The thickness of the mortar layer is ½”.

To maintain the thickness and uniformity of the mortar layer, I use a hand-made wooden form.

The form is made with ½” thick wooden plank.

Spread mortar on the brick layout using that form.

Note: Some masons can maintain the thickness and uniformity of the mortar layer without form. That’s fine not to use the form.

Now, Set Two Bricks On Both Ends Of The Wall.

This is done to maintain the straightness of the wall.

After setting bricks at both ends, correct the position of those bricks with the bottom layer.

And tie a rope with both bricks.

Finally, Put Bricks On The Mortar Layer.

Once you’ve completed the mortar laying, you can now put bricks above it, one after another.

For a 5-inch thick brick wall, we use the Stretcher bond pattern.

And, for a 10-inch thick wall English bond.

Make sure, the gap between the two bricks is ½”.

Fill this gap with the mortar properly. So that no gaps are left blank in brick joints.


That is the actual process of constructing brick walls.

But, you also need to…

Keep Window Openings

A Window opening is a gap in a wall.

Most often, they are kept in periphery walls.

Sometimes, they are also kept in inner walls.

Later, grills, aluminum, mosquito net, glass, etc. are fixed in the opening.

[Note: I’ve discussed a little bit about window openings in the brick layout section above. But It needs further explanation.]

To keep window openings in walls:

First, Set The Window Height.

For that, head over to the architectural plan.

As you can see, here is a window named “W1

With that, get the window height from the window schedule.

Here, the height of the window is 4’-6”.

Keep in mind that the window height is calculated from the bottom of the lintel.

For our example window, keep the opening height 4’-7”.


Because you need to do plaster inside the opening.

That means you need to be prepared for keeping window openings after completing brick walls up to 2’-7” as the lintel is built at 7’-2” from the unfinished floor.

And, this is for 4’-6” height windows.

But, you may have different window heights in your project.

So, study the window schedule before starting brick wall making.

Next, Set The Width Of The Window.

Again, head over to the window schedule.

And, the width of our example window is 5’-0”.

For that, keep the window opening 5’-1”.


You already know that!

Do the same for all other windows.

And complete making all brick walls up to 7 feet without kitchen walls.

Why without kitchen walls?

Because you need to…

Make Kitchen Cabinet Slab

A kitchen cabinet slab is an RCC slab built for burner and sink placement.

The burner slab is normally built 27 inches above the unfinished floor.

And, the sink-slab is built 33 inches above.

After casting the cabinet slab, you can build the wall of the kitchen up to 7 feet too.

With this, you’ve built all the brick walls up to 7 feet.


Make Lintel And False Slab

A lintel is an RCC member built on door openings.

As well as, on window openings.

They are built to support the brick wall above the opening.

And, the false slab is a 3 inches thick RCC slab built on bathrooms.

These are built to hide the sanitary pipes above the bathrooms.

Caution: After making brick walls up to 7 feet, allow them to gain strength for at least 3 days. Don’t start lintel/false slab making within this period.

With this, the brick wall construction is almost finished.

One last step – that is…

Build Brick Walls Above Lintel And False Slab

Making brick walls above the lintel and false slab is the same as we’ve learned to build brick walls above.

Just make sure, you’ve hacked the surfaces where bricks will join with RCC.

That’s it!


As a civil engineer, you’re not actually building brick walls.

Masons build brick walls.

But you need to learn the process. So that you can control the quality of brickwork.

So whenever you plan to start making brick walls on a floor, read and re-read this post.

Now I’d Like To Turn It Over To You!

Did I miss anything in this post that’ll hamper the quality of the brickwork?

Or, Do you want to share anything about brick wall making?

Either way, let me know by leaving a comment below…

Stages of construction of turnkey brick houses

The construction of turnkey brick houses is naturally divided into several stages and can be carried out and paid for in stages.

Structural box (foundation, walls and roof)

The construction of brick houses begins with a foundation, usually a reinforced concrete strip, laid to a depth greater than the average freezing depth of the soil. The foundation tape for a brick house is located under the outer and all load-bearing internal walls of the house. If the house is to be faced with bricks, then the width of the foundation should be sufficient to accommodate the main load-bearing wall, a layer of insulation and facing masonry with a ventilation gap.

The calculation of the foundation for a brick house in accordance with the nature of the soil on the site and the parameters of the future house is performed at stage of designing a country house.

In the foundation walls, holes must be provided for the entry of water pipes of the water supply system and the outlet of the sewerage system of a country house, as well as air vents for ventilation if the basement is unheated.

Foundation walls should preferably be waterproofed, although this is not always done for reasons of economy. If the project of a brick house provides for a heated basement floor that can accommodate technical rooms (boiler room, boiler room, pantry), underground garage, workshop, sauna, swimming pool, gym, etc., then it is better to immediately insulate and waterproof the foundation walls in order to finish with earthworks on the site.

As you can see, already at the stage of laying the foundation of a brick house, it is desirable to have an idea not only about its architecture and layout, but also to know whether it will be insulated, what engineering equipment will be placed in it, what is the purpose of all its premises, etc.

The basement is covered, usually from reinforced concrete slabs. If the ceiling is not mounted immediately, then it is advisable to cover the foundation with a temporary roof made of roofing material.

The next stage in the construction of a brick house is the construction of walls and roofs. Most often, projects of brick houses provide for external insulation of the house. The construction of country houses made of bricks without insulation is also quite widespread, although it does not allow achieving heat savings that meets modern building codes.

During the construction of brick houses without insulation with external brick cladding, the laying of the main walls and cladding is carried out simultaneously. If there is an external insulation of the main walls, then the lining is performed after the completion of the roof.

In accordance with the project, the interfloor floors in brick houses are usually made of reinforced concrete – from slabs or monolithic – but in small country houses they can also be made of wood.

The erected brick walls of a country house must be hidden under a roof (temporary or permanent). There are two schemes for installing an insulated ventilated roof over a residential heated attic.

The first, simplest option: install the rafters, cover with a diffusion membrane (most often with Tyvek), stuff the counter-lattice, which creates a ventilation gap, and the crate. In this form, the roof can be left for a while, since Tyvek does not let water through, or covered with roofing material, in order to later replace it with roofing material, or immediately lay the roofing material clean. In this case, the insulation will be laid from below and hemmed with the ceiling, which is not very convenient. But the roof can be mounted in stages.

The second option, which is more convenient from the point of view of installing the insulation: we install the rafters and immediately hem the draft ceiling with a vapor barrier film from below. Then we lay the insulation in several layers. On top of the insulation – Tyvek, counter-lattice, crate and roofing material. In this case, the entire “roofing pie” is immediately mounted from start to finish.

Roofing material can be anything, from ondulin to natural tiles, but it is better if in its appearance it matches the solid and rich appearance of a country brick house.

Insulation and exterior decoration

Insulation and exterior decoration of brick houses are interconnected. The lining of the house with bricks is carried out leaving an air ventilation gap on top of the insulation laid outside the main brickwork. This stage of building a brick house can be done before or after interior decoration – it doesn’t matter.

The above also applies to the newer for Russia technology “wet facade”, which consists in the exterior finishing with special plaster on top of the insulation glued to the enclosing brick walls of the house. Both of these methods allow you to solve the problem of condensate, which is described in more detail in the “brick houses” section.

After all the main outdoor work on the construction of a country house is completed, you can begin to arrange the site.

Engineering systems of country brick houses

The logic of the further course of construction of a brick country house is as follows: in order to start interior decoration – painting walls, laying parquet, etc. – a certain temperature and humidity regime is needed, which means that the heating circuit must be closed (windows and doors installed) and heating turned on.

The heating circuit closes after the house has dried out sufficiently. Until this time, you need to provide good ventilation, the easiest way is natural.

Internal partitions are installed according to the layout.

Then electrical wiring is carried out, heating system pipes and other utilities are laid out, walls are plastered, a concrete screed with a “warm floor” system is done, if it is provided for by the project, radiators are hung, although they will have to be removed for a while at the finishing stage, – and turn on the heating.

When the desired temperature is established in the house and the temperature and humidity conditions stabilize, they proceed to the last stage of building a brick house – finishing.

The interior decoration of the walls of brick houses, as a rule, consists in painting them, finishing with decorative plaster or wallpapering. There are many very beautiful and original finishing systems. In fact, the interior decoration of brick houses does not have any restrictions and completely depends on your imagination.

The construction company “Country House” performs all stages of the construction of turnkey brick houses according to ready-made or modified standard projects, as well as their individual design and construction.

Bricklaying: Building Brick Walls

Brick buildings are all around us. The use of this material for construction has been learned since ancient times. Raw brick houses were found in the oldest settlement of the Neolithic people – Chatal-Guyuk. The technology for the construction of structures made of bricks was called masonry. Brickwork is used in mass building and in the private sector. People who are professionally engaged in masonry are called masons. You can learn this craft on your own, then when working in the country you will not have to resort to the services of professionals.

The process of learning to be a bricklayer is complex and requires many hours of practice. In this article we will try to reveal all the main issues related to brickwork. Knowledge of technological processes and tools will be useful not only for those who are going to master bricklaying in practice, but also for those who plan to build a house with the involvement of hired teams.

For DIY masonry practice, it is best to start with a small facility such as a brick smokehouse, barbecue or small shed. It is very important to get comfortable with the basic tools of a bricklayer. All tools can be divided into those that are used to prepare the mortar, to apply the mortar to the brick and measuring devices.

  • Concrete mixer (concrete mixer) – construction equipment for the preparation of building mixtures. In order not to spend a lot of time and effort on preparing solutions, concrete mixers are used. Concrete mixers are manual (set in motion by turning the handle) and electric (driven by an electric motor). Electric stirrers can work without human intervention. Constant rotation does not allow the solution to solidify. The drum itself can rotate, while the blades remain motionless. In some designs, the blades rotate while the drum is stationary.

A frame with wheels makes it easier to transport the agitator across the construction site or summer cottage

In the design of the concrete mixer, a geared motor or a crown is used as a drive mechanism.

  • Drill Mixer makes it easy to mix mortar. The drill can operate at low speeds with high torque and has a special stirrer attachment.
  • Trowel (trowel) – a hand tool in the form of a spatula, designed to manipulate substances of a thick substance – solutions. The mason’s trowel consists of a canvas sanded on both sides. The handle is made of plastic or wood. The handle is connected to the canvas with a special bracket. At the end of the handle there may be a special striker for tapping bricks during laying. The dimensions of the trowel depend on the specifics of the work from 150×100 mm to 200×100 mm.

Trowel with wooden handle and steel head at the end

The handle of the trowel makes it easy to work with the tool. The inclined handle on the arm 4 – 5 cm allows you to avoid getting residual mortar on your hands when tapping.

  • Bricklayer’s pick is a tool for splitting and shrinking bricks. On one side of the head is a striker, on the other – a sharp blade. The handle is either wooden or plastic with rubber inserts. Rubber protects the hand from vibration, wood is more pleasant to the touch, but with intensive work it quickly becomes unusable and needs to be replaced.

Rubber coating reduces vibration when working with a mason’s pick

  • Jointing is a tool designed for jointing. Joints are equipped with plastic and wooden handles. They have a narrow pen, which is given various shapes (convex, straight oblique, triangular, etc.). The joint pen allows you to penetrate the seam and level it after laying.

Joint used for troweling seam

  • Mortar shovel is designed for supplying mortar onto masonry or for preparing a mixture. The blade has the shape of a scoop, which facilitates the mixing of the solution. The handle is made of wood or fiberglass. At the end of the handle, a D-shaped handle is sometimes placed for ease of operation.

Large bucket capacity makes it easy to pour mortar

  • Mortar containers are containers for preparing the mix. There are several types depending on the size. Plastic containers can be round or rectangular, usually their volume does not exceed 100 liters. To prepare a large amount of solution, a metal container from 200 liters is suitable.

Mortar container equipped with sling rings for movement with cranes or other lifting equipment

  • Water container – water is required to prepare the solution, for convenience it can be poured into a special container. A bucket or plastic container is suitable for this.
  • Corded Plumb – refers to measuring devices for checking straight vertical lines (plumb line) on corners, walls and poles. A plumb bob is a steel cone-shaped weight on a rope.

Bricklayer’s plumb bob weighs up to 1-2 kg, lighter products are used in calm weather. Inside the level there is an air bubble, which, by its movement, shows how much the surface has deviated from the horizontal or vertical

  • Rule is a scale bar. The rule is made of wood or aluminum. The rule is used to measure the evenness of walls.
  • Do not use only one measuring device and neglect others. Level, plumb and rule are used together, complementing each other.

    • Ordering is a steel or wooden lath for measuring masonry rows. The order is attached at the corners and allows you to measure the height of the next row along with the seam.
    • Dock – nylon thread or fishing line, which is stretched between two corners to control straight lines in rows of masonry.

    Before we start talking about masonry itself, a few words about terminology should be said. The gaps between the brick blocks are called seams , the seams are filled with mortar and connect all the elements of the building into a monolithic structure. Seams are vertical and horizontal. Horizontal joints are made continuous, in most masonry they are parallel to the ground and the horizon line. The only exceptions are specific types of masonry (arches). The vertical seam should not be continuous, if there is a continuous vertical seam in the wall, then the masonry technology has been violated. Professionals call the method of placing bricks suture dressing .

    All brick surfaces have their own names. All of these terms are used by professional masons. The bed is the upper and lower planes of the brick. Spoon – two long side planes. The poke is located at the ends of the product. The rows in which the bricks are joined by poking are called spoon rows (by the name of the surface on the front side). If the bricks touch with pokes, then such a row is called a spoon row.

    Bandaging of seams allows to form a monolithic structure. The upper rows fix the lower ones. There are a large number of different dressing systems, but the most common are single-row, three-row and multi-row.

    • Single-row ligation a method of creating a monolithic brick structure, when there is an alternation of spoon and bond rows.
    • Three-row tie – suitable for building bollards that need to be stabilized. With this method of laying, three rows of spoon rows are tied with one bonder.
    • Multi-row dressing differs from three-row dressing in the number of rows to be tied, there may be 5 or 6 rows.

    Decorative masonry – spoon and bond bricks alternate, while the bond brick has a different color

    Decorative masonry is allowed on the front side, when bricks of different colors form a certain pattern.

    The seams between blocks of bricks are made differently depending on the purpose of the masonry.

    • Hollow joint is a rough version of the joints, designed for subsequent plastering. Between the bricks leave a space unfilled with cement. When plastering, the mortar enters this space and improves adhesion to the surface.
    • Undercut is used to create a smooth brick surface. The solution fills completely the entire space to the edge. The undercut is used for cladding.
    • Jointing – additional processing of the seam, which includes giving the seam a certain shape. Often a special tool is used for this – stitching. Professional masons make their own jointing. Depending on the shape of the tool, the seam is obtained, convex, concave, oblique, triangular or double-cut.

    The thickness of the walls being built affects the masonry. In the central and northern regions of our country, two or two and a half bricks are used for the outer walls of houses. If the building is two-story, then the thickness of the walls on the second floor can be made narrower. At the same time, there are a large number of variations of masonry of different thicknesses.

    Types of masonry depending on wall thickness

    • Half a brick (15 cm) – bricks are laid in a row one after another. This thickness is allowed when building partitions inside the house to divide the space into rooms. In this case, the wall should not be load-bearing. Masonry in one brick can be strengthened with reinforcement.
    • In one brick (25 cm) – the bars are adjacent to each other with spoons. Such masonry is used for load-bearing walls in the interior of a house or extension.
    • One and a half bricks (38 cm) can be used to build the outer walls of a house for one-story structures. In this type of masonry, two layers of bricks are used. The inner one is closed with spoons, the outer one with pokes, as when laying half a brick. With this method of building walls, a layer of insulating or soundproofing material can go between the two layers.
    • In two bricks (51 cm) – two layers of a brick wall go one after another. In both cases, the bars are closed with spoons.
    • Two and a half bricks (64 cm) – the wall consists of three layers of bricks. Two rows are closed with spoons, one with pokes. This wall thickness is suitable for capital private houses. For the outer layer, facing bricks can be used, and for the inner ones – drill. The wall can provide high-quality thermal insulation and strength, but due to the large consumption of bricks and mortar, the house will cost much more.

    Brick in the masonry is only half the battle. A solution is a substance that performs a binding function. After application, the thick substance hardens and acquires strength. Depending on the composition, the types of solutions are distinguished.

    • Cement is the most commonly used type of mortar, it contains water, sand and masonry cement. The preparation of the mortar usually takes place right at the construction site, in which case auxiliary tools (concrete mixers, mixer drills) come to the rescue. The use of cement mortar allows you to create solid solid structures, while poor-quality ingredients or a violation of technology can lead to cracks and damage to the integrity of the material.

    Cement production technologies vary, the most popular variety is Portland cement. It consists of gypsum, crushed cement clinker and calcium silicates. The name of cement is associated with the English island of Portland, where a similar color stone is mined.

    • Limestone is made from sand, water and quicklime. The material is used for the construction of partitions indoors, as the substance has poor resistance to moisture. In this case, the resulting solution has a high plasticity.

    Mortars for buildings in ancient Greek and Roman cities were created on the basis of limestone. The Romans added additional ingredients to lime solutions that increased resistance to moisture. Some of these buildings have survived to this day.

    • Lime-cement mortar includes both cement and lime. Combines the beneficial properties of two types of solutions.
    • Stove Mortar is intended for laying stoves and outdoor barbecue grills. Typically, furnace mortar is used for the inside of the firebox. For preparation, a mixture of sand and clay is used, which undergoes a long preliminary soaking.
    • Dry masonry mixes – in fact, are a ready-made mortar – diluted with water and you can work. The components are in the optimal proportion, so it is difficult to violate the cooking technology. Masonry mixtures contain additional ingredients that increase the characteristics of the final product (strength, density, plasticity, frost resistance).

    When using cement, the proportion may often change in favor of sand. When trying to save money, cement is not reported to the solution. As a result, the mixture loses strength and the solidified solution may crack. With the finished mixture, such a bias cannot occur.

    Keeping the correct proportions is an important part of a good mortar. There are no universal recipes, you have to mix depending on the composition. For mixtures with lime, 4 parts of sand to 1 part of lime are usually used. For cement mortar, the brand of cement is important. The brand is indicated by the letter “M”, the number is the compressive strength. For M 500, you will need to make a proportion of 1 part of cement and 4 of sand. For M 300 – 1:3. The amount of liquid affects the consistency of the solution. The master proceeds from climatic conditions – in hot weather they make more liquid cement so that it does not set longer. Also, the density of the solution is selected for a specific masonry and types of bricks. Beginners are advised to add water to the future solution in small doses to make it easier to find the right consistency.

    To obtain solutions of different shades, various additional ingredients can be added to it. For example, for a black solution, soot is added during mixing.

    The cooking procedure itself can be carried out both manually and using specialized equipment and tools. Manual kneading is usually done with conventional shovels. All ingredients must be purified. The sand must have a fraction of more than 2 mm and must first go through the screening process. Unscreened sand may contain pebbles and debris, which will create problems for the bricklayer. The finished solution must be periodically mixed to slow down the setting process.

    Many factors influence the consumption of the solution. For 1 sq.m of masonry, 75 liters of mortar will be required if the thickness of the masonry is one brick. The unprofessionalism of the worker and the structure of the brick can increase the consumption (in a hollow brick, the solution flows into the holes). The quality of the brick and cracks also affect, irregularities will require more mixture.

    Bricklaying can be done in different ways. Bricklayers have developed two main methods: back-to-back and back-to-back.

    • Back-to-back – with this method of laying, the mortar is laid on the bed of the underlying brick. The brick of the upper row is placed and, with the help of its weight, drives the mortar onto the vertical plane of the neighboring bar. Excess solution is removed with a trowel. When applying the solution, it is necessary to indent from the front side.
    • Push-in is a method in which the mortar is forced onto the vertical surface of an adjacent brick using a trowel edge. The solution is placed on the bed with an indent of 10 mm from the front side, while being leveled on the bed. There is a version of this method when the mortar is applied to the poke of the brick being laid (when laying poke to poke in spoon rows)

    Back-to-back laying Back-to-back laying

    Professional masons sometimes practice this method of laying, when the mortar is applied at once, counting on 3-4 bricks. Beginners are advised to apply the mixture for one brick, because due to the lack of skills, the applied mortar will have time to dry.

    Brick wall erection technology

    Wall erection begins after the completion of work on the foundation, laying the first layer requires a lot of experience and is a responsible event on which all further construction will depend.

    • Bricklaying is a step recommended for beginners. Professional masons usually do without it. The first row of bricks is laid out without mortar on the foundation.

    Roofing material is laid between the foundation and the brick.

    • Aligning the levels – a rope or fishing line is used for leveling – a mooring, it is stretched between two corners and ensures alignment on the front side. Sometimes the mooring is stretched both on the inside and on the outside. Orders are fixed from the corners – this is a scale that allows you to mark rows of bricks with seams.
    • The laying of the first row is corrected using a level. In order not to measure the indent from the front side each time, a steel bar is placed on the edge of the brick.

    It is useful to have several bars of different lengths in stock. A long bar is laid on the front side. Short ones can be used to fill a vertical seam.

    • Lay the next rows from the corner. The mooring is pulled to a new level. Each brick is controlled by a level. Shrinkage is done with the back of a trowel or a bricklayer’s hammer.
    • Reinforcement – reinforcement is added to the masonry every 2-3 rows. It should not exceed the width of the seam in diameter.
    • After the masonry is completed, when working with the outer layer of the wall, the joints are grouted.

    Bricklaying is a complex and time-consuming procedure. The complexity of the masonry depends on the thickness of the walls and the methods of dressing. It is better to master the craft of a bricklayer from simple views, practicing on walls half brick.