Indoor Staircase Terminology and Standards
Whether installing stairs and railings by yourself or hiring professionals, a good knowledge of stair parts terminology helps when choosing the right design and materials.
Types of Staircases
There are two broad categories of stairs: open and closed.
A closed staircase is one with treads and risers, while an open one only has treads. Some experts also define an open stair as having one side enclosed by a wall, whereas walls or rails enclose both sides of a closed stair. Both types of staircases can have straight run and platform designs. A straight run stair goes continuously from one floor to the next and has no turns or landings. Platform stairs have landings that serve as bridges between sections where they change direction.
An L-shaped staircase has one turn and one platform, and U-shaped stairs have two turns and one platform. A double-L stair has two turns and two platforms. While these examples have straight sections, there are also curved staircases. The most prominent of these is the spiral staircase that coils on itself as it rises.
Stair Terminology and Features
- Riser: This is the vertical section between two steps in a staircase. Rise height varies from 5″ to 8″, with most between 7″ and 7.5″.
- Tread: This is the horizontal section of each step in a staircase. Also called a run, users step on this part. In simple terms, a staircase is a series of treads and risers. The width of each tread and the height of each riser are the key stair dimensions that determine the number of steps in a staircase.
- Nosing: In many types of staircases, the tread overlaps the end of the riser. This overlap or protrusion is the nosing.
- Tread: With the “run” of a staircase, we are referring to the depth of the step, or tread, minus the nosing. The tread varies between 8 ¼” and 14″. The treads of most staircases vary between 9 ¾” and 10 ½”.
The tread can be calculated by dividing the total length of the staircase by the number of steps. Another method consists of calculating the space between two risers.
- Headroom: This is the vertical space between any step of a stair and the ceiling or other enclosed surface above it. Allowable headroom varies depending on local building codes. Typically, the main stair should have a headroom of 6’ 8″.
- Stringer: This board is on either side of a stair and it serves as support for the risers and treads. Open stairs have cut stringers. Closed stringers look like continuous support beams. The length and width of stringers are also important stair dimensions.
- Railings: Also called handrails, these are long, angled pieces of wood or metal that run the length of a stair. They are useful for holding to support users while climbing up and down.
- Spandrel: This is stair terminology for the triangular enclosure beneath a flight of stairs. Homeowners can use this space as storage closets.
- Hand rail: The handrail is the element that runs parallel to the staircase; it’s used by people to maintain their balance ascending and descending the staircase and is commonly referred to as the “banister.” It should be a minimum of 36″ above the nosing of the tread. The space between the wall and handrail should be no more than 1 5/8″.
A single handrail is mandatory for any staircase with three or more risers, where riser width does not exceed 43″. If the staircase is wider, handrails must be installed on both sides.
For a staircase between two walls, the handrail must be installed on wall brackets. If the staircase is open on one or both sides, the handrail becomes the upper part of the actual railing.
- Railing: The railing extends the length of the open sides of a stairway in order to prevent accidental falls. The railing must be at least 35″ around openings and above the steps of the staircase. The spacing between balusters (or stair sticks) must not exceed 4″.
Stair Dimensions and Calculations
Calculating the riser-tread ratio is essential when designing and constructing a stair. The general rule of thumb says the sum of two risers and a tread should be equal to 24″ to 25″. Therefore, a stair with 6½” risers needs 12″ treads, while one with 7¼” risers should have 10½” treads. This relationship holds for straight, U-, and L-shaped staircase dimensions.
To calculate the number of risers in a stair, divide the staircase height (distance between the floor at the bottom of the stair to the ceiling or the hard surface above the stair) by the riser height. For example, a staircase that is 105″ high can fit 15 by 7″ risers. When using L- or U-shaped staircase dimensions, account for landings by subtracting one or more risers.
Tread depth and width are also key stair dimensions to note. Calculate tread depth by dividing the total length of the stair (horizontal distance between the foot of the stair and the next landing) by the number of steps. A stair should be wide enough to allow two people to pass comfortably and move furniture with ease. The standard recommendation is a minimum width of 3’. You should also use these dimensions and calculations when learning how to install stair stringers inside.
When measuring a stair for stringers, take care to account for the thickness of the stair tread in your calculation. This is usually 1″ wide.
Building Codes for Stairs
Most residential building codes rely on the standards developed by the International Code Council (ICC) and International Building Code (IBC). These bodies provide specific stair dimensions to ensure these building features are safe for all users. Some of these rules are:
- Stairs must be at least 36″ wide with a minimum headroom of 6’ 8″
- Risers must have a maximum height of 7 ¾” and open risers must be 4″ high or shorter
- Each tread in a stair must have a minimum depth of 10″. The treads of curved staircases must not be less than 6″ deep
- Residential stairs must have nosings and these must be between 1 ¼” and ¾” in length, with the difference between longest and shortest nosings less than 3/8″
- Residential stairs with four or more risers need handrails for safety. Handrails should be 34″ to 38″ above stairs. They should be at least 1 ½” clear of the wall to make them easy to grip. Handrails must also project from the wall a maximum distance of 4 ½” so they do not make stairs too narrow
- Spaces between balusters must be less than 4″ to prevent children from crawling between the openings
Staircase Building Materials
The three key factors to consider when getting materials for building a stair are durability, safety, and aesthetics. The materials selected will also help when choosing the drill that best suits you and the project. The most commonly used materials for different types of staircases are wood, natural stone, concrete, metal, steel, and glass.
More affordable than other options, wood is light, easy to work, and suitable for straight and curved staircases. It’s also warm and inviting and comes in different tones and densities. Oak is a hardwood option that is very dense and ages gracefully, while beech, ash, and maple brighten homes with their lighter tones. When building with wood, remember to apply sealant. Try a wood varnish to transform the look of your stair. One drawback of using wood for a staircase is inevitable creaking.
All types of staircases made with natural stone, such as marble, have an elegant, natural look that complements luxurious decors. Stone is very strong but needs a protective coat of sealant. It’s an expensive option, difficult to use for curved staircases, and takes a lot of time and energy to install.
A less costly alternative to natural stone, concrete is also very durable. It’s easier to maintain and can look like stone with the right treatment and staining. Like stone, building stairs with concrete takes considerable time and effort.
Metals are strong materials that are lighter than wood. Often combined with wood and glass, they’re easier to shape and commonly used for spiral staircases. Aluminum is a popular metal for stairs. It’s rustproof, lightweight, strong, and malleable. Like other metals, it’s best for modern and industrial decors.
Is also suitable for curved staircases. This alloy is stronger than most commonly used metals and available in a wide range of shapes and colours. However, steel is not rustproof and needs special treatment, like anti-rust paint, to maintain its look and integrity. Stainless steel is a rust-resistant material that does not tarnish easily. Even then, it requires regular maintenance to keep it pristine.
All types of staircases built with glass look very elegant, especially when combined with stair lighting. The transparent surface of the material makes stairwells look and feel airy. It’s often combined with other materials when used only for hand rails. However, there are all-glass stairs too. Glass picks up smudges, smears, and scratches easily. It’s also a very expensive material to use for a staircase.
Staircase Flooring Options
While gathering the materials, accessories, and hardware to build a straight or curved staircase, consider the kind of the flooring it will have. The right flooring is one that is durable and easy to maintain. Here are the merits and drawbacks of common flooring options used for different types of staircases:
- Strong and durable flooring
- Easy to maintain
- Needs refinishing every now and then to maintain its look
- Moderately difficult to install
Shop all stairs and railings
- More affordable than floor coverings such as hardwood and ceramic tiles
- Installs over most surfaces except carpet
- Ideal for DIY installation on all types of staircases
- Not suitable for high-traffic areas as it wears down quickly
- Requires wood nosing to prevent tread edges from wearing thin
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- Carpet is a plush, sound-absorbing material
- Easy DIY installation
- Wears down quickly when placed in high-traffic areas
- Not suitable for allergy sufferers as it picks up dust easily
- Stains easily
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- Very durable
- Easy to clean and maintain
- Hard and cold on bare feet
- Difficult installation
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- Strong and durable
- Easy to maintain
- Cannot be installed over other surfaces or on an existing staircase
- Heavy and must be custom-built and installed
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- Vinyl is an affordable flooring material
- Easy to install and suitable for DIY makeovers of all types of staircases
- Easy to clean and maintain
- May change colour and lose vibrancy over time
- Requires plastic nosing to protect its edges
Shop all vinyl tiles and planks
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What is the railing height code for a deck?
The 36-inch deck railing height is the standard for most decks. This height is measured from the deck surface to the top of the railings and must include any additional decorative elements that are part of the railing such as balusters or pickets. It’s important to remember that guardrails are a safety feature, and all railings should be designed in accordance with local building codes and regulations. Stair rails should also be designed to the standard deck guardrails, and must meet a few additional requirements such as meeting a grasping surface requirement. For more information regarding deck railing codes, contact your local building department.
What is the railing height code for a porch?
Terrace railings are both a safety and an aesthetic element. Proper railing height is essential to ensure the safety of your guests. Most building codes require the height of deck railings to be at least 36 inches from the deck surface to the top of the railing, as well as the baluster height code. Some jurisdictions may have specific requirements regarding commercial decks and deck guardrail, so it is always best to check with your local authority. so it is always best to check local building codes before beginning installation. As for deck stair railings, they must have a minimum height of 34 inches from the stair tread to the top of the handrail. Railings must also have a gripping surface and lack sharp edges or points.
How do I install a code-compliant railing?
The installation of deck railing is a critical part of any deck project. It is important to ensure that the railing complies with local building codes and is properly installed. For added safety, make sure the deck frame and deck floor are properly secured.
how tall for deck railing?
When it comes to stair railing installers chicago , the standard height requirement is 36 inches. This height requirement applies to all types of exterior stairways, including deck stairs and balconies. If your deck or balcony requires a railing higher than 36 inches, be sure to consult with local building codes before proceeding with installation. It’s also important that you choose a reputable professional for any repair or installation work, as this ensures safety and compliance with applicable regulations. When choosing a contractor for railing repair Chicago, make sure they are experienced and can provide references from past projects. Additionally, look for contractors who specialize in both residential and commercial railings so that you know your project will be completed correctly and professionally.
standard deck railing height
When it comes to the height of deck railings, safety is key. The standard deck rail height for residential decks is 36 inches. Deck stair railing must be at least 34 inches high, measured from the nose of the stair tread to the top of the deck rail. In commercial applications, guardrails are required to be 42” high as per OSHA regulations. Furthermore, a midrail should also be incorporated into your railing system if you want to meet building code requirements; this midrail should be placed halfway between the top and bottom rails so that there’s sufficient room to grasp it while walking up or down stairs. Deck railings can come in different materials such as wood, metal, or composite — each providing their own unique benefits and aesthetic value. No matter what material you choose, make sure it meets the standard deck rail height requirements to promote a safe environment for everyone who uses your deck.
On fire safety requirements for fencing of evacuation stairs and stairwells, including the height of railings and the distance between handrails.
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To determine the categories of premises and buildings for explosion and fire hazard in accordance with SP 12. 13130 with integrated reference book of substances and materials
To determine the calculated value of the individual fire risk for the i-th fire scenario QB,i in accordance with the “Methodology for determining the values of fire risk in buildings, structures and structures of various classes of functional fire hazard”
For a production facility, it is designed to assess the value of individual fire risk R (year-1) for an employee, provided that he is in the building.
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how to make them optimally in size and what should be the minimum or standard height in a private house
One of the main elements of the staircase design, on which safety and ease of movement depend, is the railing. There are many different versions and combinations of materials, but the main indicator is the height of the railing.
Fence design should focus not only on unique design, but also on safety and compliance.
General requirements for fencing
The main documents regulating such design are SNiP IV-14-84 and GOST 23120-78.
Let’s talk about the basic requirements, which are sufficient in most cases:
- It is necessary to install a railing on stairs above three steps.
- For a span of less than 1.25 m, the railing is installed on one side, provided that the ladder is adjacent to the wall.
- In structures with a width of 1.25 to 2.5 m, the railing is installed on both sides. In the event that the ladder also adjoins the wall, a wall handrail is attached.
- For widths over 2.5 m, an intermediate railing is recommended.
- The minimum height of the stair railing in a private house is 900 mm.
- Porch railing must be at least 1200 mm.
- The wall rail is placed at least 40 mm from the wall.
- The installation height of the wall rail is identical to the railing height of this staircase.
- The railing must be capable of withstanding a load of at least 30 kg per linear meter.
Handrail and railing height requirement
Depending on where the ladder is installed, the requirements for the ladder and the standard handrail height may vary. Let’s consider the main ones.
In homes and public places
According to GOST 25772-83, the height of stair railings should be 0.9 m, this applies to:
- private houses;
- public and industrial buildings;
- apartment buildings.
Handrail railings for the disabled
Other options for ramp railings:
- it is recommended to install railings in two levels;
- upper level – not less than 0.9m;
- lower level – 0.7 m;
- the railing of the ramp should extend 30 cm beyond its limits for comfortable descent / ascent.
Kindergartens and other preschool institutions
The railing of children’s institutions must be installed in two levels:
- the first level is 0.5 m high for children;
- second height 0.9 m for adults.
Due to the activity of schoolchildren and in order to prevent their accidental falling, fences are installed above average, 1.2m high. In specialized schools for special children, railings should be from 1.5 to 1.8 m.
All buildings with more than one floor are equipped with fire escapes. The railing on them must be at least 1.2 m.
Deviations from the standards for the height of the railing are allowed depending on who will be using the stairs. For children and people with disabilities, lower handrails are allowed.
If the stairs are not used by small children or older people who need additional support for movement, it is allowed to build stairs without railings at all – for the sake of design.
What should be the height of the railing on the stairs according to GOST?
Almost every day, many of us have to use the stairs: go down the steps in high-rise buildings, enter offices or shops, climb the stairs at school or university, or walk the stairs in the underpass. For all these structures, certain rules are provided that regulate not only the size of the steps, but also the height of the railing.
Climbing or descending the stairs, many involuntarily begin to look for the handrail with their hand in order to feel completely safe holding on to it. Many did not even think before about what the height of the railing should be, but the safety of pedestrians moving up the steps depends on it.
Handrails are special railings that are placed vertically on the stairs and are installed along the edge of the march to provide support for people ascending or descending.
Residents of high-rise buildings know how difficult it is to climb to the upper floors without additional support. Going down steps, it is quite common to need extra support. This applies to the elderly, young children and residents who have health problems, because dizziness or other problems can often occur during the descent or ascent.
When walking on stairs, a young person will quickly go down or up, and the elderly have to slowly climb the stairs, while the railing will serve them not only for convenience, but also for safety in case of a possible fall. In case of loss of balance, a person must be able to quickly grab onto the fence.
The height of the railing is determined according to special state standards, it must provide convenience and safety during movement . In addition, the railing, in addition to the protective function, also performs a decorative one, many stairs are equipped with luxurious forged or carved railings. Thanks to this finish, the designs sometimes look simply chic.
The stair railing consists of:
- handrail. A hand is lowered onto the handrail while moving up the stairs. Handrails are installed both on one side and on both sides of the march, they are mounted on balusters or directly to the wall;
- from balusters. Balusters are called posts that serve as a support for handrails. They perform a supporting function, are a decorative element;
- fastener systems. Thanks to the fastening system, the railing will be securely fixed;
- main supports.
Quite often balusters can be exchanged for bowstrings, these elements are located not vertically, but horizontally. Various materials are used to make railings. Fences can be made of the following materials:
- combined materials.
It is quite common to see structures made of wood or metal. With the help of openwork forms made of metal, you can give the structure a very interesting look, and when choosing a wooden railing – home warmth and comfort. Therefore, when choosing a structure, one should take into account for what purposes, and in what place it will be located.
If we consider metal stairs, then steel is most often used for their manufacture, you can often see a structure made of cast iron, iron, brass, aluminum. When choosing aluminum, it should be borne in mind that it is not suitable for creating a solid structure.
Although the advantage of this choice is that aluminum products are not afraid of corrosion and are easy to install.
Aluminum railings are usually prefabricated and are the choice for environments where gentle operating conditions are envisaged. If the choice fell on a stainless steel product, you should know that you can use them both indoors and for outdoor stairs.
It is not uncommon to see combined type stairs, which consist of wooden handrails and stainless steel uprights. An excellent option would be a fence, where the handrails will be made of stainless steel, and the filling will be made of glass. Stainless steel railings for stairs look no less impressive.
Forged structures look stylish and elegant, which are particularly decorative. Although such products have a high cost, but such a price will be justified, given the peculiarity of this design. Wooden products remain the most popular, wood is also used to make railings.
In the event that the railing is made of another material, it is worth using wood handrails or options made of PVC, which will imitate wood.
But many people choose wood products because they can be purchased at an affordable price. The attractive appearance of wood makes it possible to create beautiful railings that are pleasant to the touch.
Along with the main advantages, it is worth talking about the disadvantages of using wood for railings. First of all, such products will not be durable, because this material is susceptible to temperature changes, to high humidity.
Choosing precious woods for railings comes at a price. To extend the service life, you should choose the highest quality materials.
Wood products can be protected by surface treatment with special products.
Basic parameters are taken into account during the design and construction of the stair structure, with particular attention paid to the height of the railing. Dimensions for stair railings are specified in certain regulatory documents. If a staircase is being built for a private house, only basic regulatory documents are sufficient, namely:
- GOST 23120-78;
- SNiP IV–14–84.
In the event that the work is carried out to order, the dimensions of all elements must be agreed with both the customer and the authorities that give permission for the installation of stairs. According to the GOST and SNiP documents, stair railings must have certain dimensions and parameters.
The minimum height of the railing according to GOST is 90 cm, so this is the height that should be when installing structures in offices, residential buildings, shops or administrative institutions. According to the GOST documentation, structures that have more than three steps must be equipped with railings.
In the event that the staircase consists of three or more steps, and the porch is located near a public institution where there is a lot of traffic, the height for the fences should be 80 cm.
on the one hand, and on the other – the structure can adjoin the wall. When the staircase has less than three steps, the railing can be omitted.
If the structure is wider, the railing must be installed on both sides. In the event that the staircase has a very large width, about 2.5 m, then the fences are installed on the sides and in the center.
When examining the height of products, it should be noted that the height of the railing for stairs in a private house may differ from the height of railings in public establishments.
This is due to the fact that in a public building or in an educational institution the traffic of people is very high, so special attention is paid to the safety of those passing by. The height of the fence may be different, but it must fulfill its function – to serve the safety of the movement of people along the march.
When a ladder is installed in a private house, the height of the people living in the house must be taken into account. To determine the optimal height, take the length of the segment from the floor to the palm of the tallest person in the room, such parameters will be the most convenient.
If we talk about preschool institutions, then the height of the railings in them, according to the standards of SNiP and GOST, should be about half a meter. Often in kindergartens, railings are installed for both children and adults.
Toddler railings must be 0.5 m high and adult railings must be 90 cm high. Children over the age of six are very active, and therefore being on the stairs should be the safest and most comfortable.
For this reason, the height of the fence must be at least 1.2 meters. For schools and boarding schools where children with various pathologies, including mental ones, study, the height of the fences in relation to marches should be 1. 8 meters. In the event that a metal mesh is taken for the structure, then the standard height is 1.5 meters.
The distance between the balusters must also be considered. In rooms where children are located, it should be about 20 cm. The distance should not be large so that the child cannot accidentally fall out. At the same time, it should be borne in mind that children can accidentally get stuck between the balusters. There are also certain requirements for the width of the handrails.
It should not be less than 3 cm, at the same time, the width of the handrail should not exceed 7 cm. The only exceptions can be front stairs, where deviation from the standard width is allowed. For front stairs, the width can be more than 7 cm.
The distance between the balusters should be no more than 0.5 meters, as with a larger distance, the handrail may sag. If the distance between the balusters is more than 15 cm, horizontal crossbars are used.
The width and height of the railing must be selected in accordance with the relevant regulations. The numerical value of the dimensions of the stair railing must be in a strictly defined order. When designing stairs in buildings, not only the size value is chosen, but the following is also taken into account:
- for what purposes the building or structure is intended;
- its functions – for what purposes the ladder is provided;
- the number of people who will use this design;
- installation of a special ladder for people with disabilities;
- material for making the structure.
When installing a ladder, it must be taken into account that it can be used by disabled people and people with limited abilities, so this design must be adapted to their needs.
When determining the standard height of the handrail, the following points must be taken into account:
- the maximum height can be up to 1.2 meters;
- should not allow differences in the size of the railing in a residential building;
- height and depth differences of the fence are not allowed in public buildings, such as a kindergarten, a school;
- for a spiral staircase, the height of the railing should not exceed 1. 2 meters.
In a private house, yard stairs are often built, which have the following varieties:
- ladder which is constructed by giving the required slope on the ground;
- ladders for which side boards are used;
- concrete structure, which is installed on a base of crushed stone;
- stairs with brick steps.
When constructing these structures, follow the same dimensions and ratios provided in the documents that regulate the parameters of the stairs in a residential building. According to GOST and SNiP, for residential buildings, the height of the railing should be no less than 90 cm. The material is chosen according to the chosen style.
For example, if the room is made in the Baroque style, then for such a building it is better to choose forged products, thanks to which the structure will immediately become richer and transform the whole room. If the room is made in high-tech or loft style, you should choose a stainless steel or glass fence.
Forged railings look very nice, vinyl railings, which are made of PVC, are becoming a novelty. There are ready-made railings on sale, which are immediately selected for the type of stairs.
When choosing finished products for the railing, take into account that the size of the railing meets the standards. PVC stair railings are quite durable because their inner frame is made of galvanized metal.
The plastic layer protects the entire structure from the adverse effects of the environment, protects against corrosion and interaction with chemicals. The material does not fade in the sun, has a wide variety of colors, has the ability to imitate any materials.
Vinyl railings can be called very practical, but they do not have a special luxury. When constructing a ladder and choosing the height of the fence, you should follow the established rules in accordance with GOST and SNiP, as this will ensure reliable protection and safety of people on it.
In addition, when checking the height of the railing for stairs by the regulatory authorities, the design should not cause any claims. For residential premises, it is important to correctly maintain the distance between the fence and the risers.
In addition, the parameters for stairs should be as follows:
- for stairs, a slope of 80-85% is usually taken;
- the recommended height of the first step and riser is 14-17 cm, according to the standards, the height should be 12-20 cm;
- the width of the tread according to the standards is 20-40 cm, usually it is 28-30 cm;
- one tread and two risers are equal in total to the step of a person, that is, they have a size of 60–65 cm.
If you follow all these basic rules, you can ensure that the stairs will be convenient and comfortable. The correct height of the fence will ensure durability, and just as importantly, its safety.
What should be the height of the railing on the stairs according to the standard
The main purpose of the enclosing structures is to protect people moving up the stairs from injuries and falls. That is why all their criteria are strictly regulated by the rules and regulations of construction. In this article, we will talk about such a parameter as the height of the railing on the stairs, as well as other requirements for these important elements of the fence.
Handrail installation rules: what SNiP and GOST
First of all, consider those rules and regulations that determine the entire process of installing building envelopes. They say that any staircase that uses more than three steps must have a railing. In addition, a number of additional requirements are imposed on it:
- If the width of the stairs is no more than 125 cm, and one of its sides is adjacent to the wall or any other capital structure, it is possible to install the railing only on the other side.
- On stairs with a width of more than 125 cm, railings must be installed on both sides. Moreover, regardless of whether the structure adjoins the walls.
- On wide stairs (more than two and a half meters wide), railings are mounted on both sides and in the middle.
As for the height of the railing itself, it is regulated separately for residential buildings and public buildings. This is due to the load that is placed on the flight of stairs, as well as to the increased intensity of its operation, with a significantly increased cross-country ability in the second case.
At what height should a railing be installed in a residential building? 1 meter from the surface of the steps.
Compliance with these rules makes it possible to ensure the complete safety of all residents of the house, regardless of their age and physical condition.
Height of railings in public buildings: again we turn to SNiP
Enclosing structures in public buildings experience a much higher load, so there are separate requirements for them:
- For public buildings, the height of the railing on the flight of stairs according to SNiP and GOST must be at least 90 cm.
- In schools and other educational institutions, the fence is installed at a height of 120 cm from the steps, which eliminates accidents associated with banal pampering.
- In educational institutions intended for children with mental retardation, enclosing structures are mounted at a height of 180 cm. These are important GOST and SNiP standards that make handrails as comfortable as possible and ensure the safety of kids when moving up flights of stairs.
It is impossible not to mention such a parameter of enclosing structures as the distance between the balusters. In ordinary public buildings it cannot be less than 15 centimeters, and in educational institutions – less than 10 cm. To create a unique home, many install original spiral and other staircases that differ significantly from the usual ones in their design.
Separate rules have been developed specifically for them, according to which the fence must be mounted on both sides to prevent falls. The railing height requirements remained unchanged.
Materials used in the manufacture of enclosing structures
Building codes and regulations have not bypassed this aspect. They set a number of requirements for each of the common materials used in the manufacture of railings. For example, if they are made of glass, it is necessary to use only hardened or reinforced varieties of it.
They can handle heavy loads and will not break or be damaged by increased pressure or impact.
Fences made of wood or gypsum, plastic or metal, or any other materials are subject to strength requirements.
They must not deform or fail under a load of 30 kg/cm3. This is quite enough to withstand even an intense flow of people.
Drawings of metal and wooden stairs, methods of their fencing must be agreed with the relevant authorities.
There are also a number of rules for installing railings on the roofs of private houses. So, if the height of the building is 10 meters, the building envelope should be located at a level of 60 cm from the surface.