Moon construction bristol: Not Your Typical Architecture Studio.

Our Service – Moon Design

We’ve designed a service that uses innovative communication tools and a digital platform to offer competitive fee scales and greater efficiency. All supported by a process that’s fast, interactive and engaging for you.

Feasibility Study

The feasibility study is a design service where we use existing floor plans (either from your sales listing or from other sources) to produce a hand-drawn sketch of what you could achieve. 

Measured Survey & Existing plans

We will arrange for a digital survey to take place. This enables us to create  accurate existing plans and elevations. The foundation of the whole design process. 

The Brief

The journey starts with you. It’s your project, your home. So, before we can start the detailed design work, we need to make sure we know what you have in mind. You will become a fundamental part of the design process. It’s about listening and feedback.

Concept Designs 

We explore the design possibilities of your project, whether it be a refurbishment, new build, remodel or extension. Your allocated designer will collaborate with you to get the most from your existing space or create new space.

Budget Review

How much will it cost me? This is perhaps the most important question for many of our clients. It’s also the reason we offer a budget review service. We’ll provide you with a well-considered, ballpark budget of the concept design and the design brief.  

Planning Applications 

We can submit all the necessary planning application on your behalf. This includes applications on Listed buildings and other sensitive locations. We are an accredited agent with many Local authorities. 

Interior Architecture

To take advantage of our unparalleled knowledge of interior materials, furniture design, and fixtures and fittings, we offer interior design packages that bring together this knowledge.

Building Regulations

We’ve completed over 400 projects in the south west. We use this unique hands-on knowledge and experience to develop your concept drawings into a set of construction drawings, ready for a Building Regulations Submission.

Construction Drawings

Many projects will require further construction drawings beyond the level of required for Building Regulations. These more detailed drawings will resolve how things are to be built and enable a more accurate quote from your contractor.

Technical Support

This stage covers our work to coordinate the other technical aspects of your project. This includes instructing the structural engineer, organising trail holes, completing CCTV surveys of drains and appointing party wall surveyors. 

Tender Pack

This service stage covers our work to coordinate the other technical aspects of your project. This includes instructing the structural engineer, organising trail holes, and assisting with party wall matters. We’re also able to produce tender packs for you to obtain quotes from your contractor of choice. 

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MOON DESIGN – Project Photos & Reviews – Bristol, Bristol, UK

Average rating: 5 out of 5 stars5.06 Reviews

About Us

Moon DESIGN is not a traditional architectural practice.

Our service goes beyond just how something looks. We value the whole design process. The practical need. The physical build. Form and function. Good design considers all these things.

With over 400 completed projects as a design & build contractor, we bring a unique depth of knowledge to each new space. Experience that creates exceptional designs that are achievable. All while giving you the flexibility to choose your contractor, be that Moon Build or another.

Services Provided

Architectural Design, Architectural Drawings, Basement Conversion, Basement Design, Bathroom Design, Building Design, Custom Build Homes, Entrance Design, Floor Plans, Garage Design, Home Office Design & Construction, Home Renovation, House Extensions, Kitchen Design, Loft Conversion, New Home Build, Porch Design & Construction, Site Planning, Space Planning, Staircase Design, Sustainable Design, Utility Room Design, Workshop Design & Construction, Bathroom Renovation, Kitchen Renovation, New Home Construction, Wooden Flooring Installation

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Bristol, Cheltenham, Bath

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exposing the popular myth about the lunar module, supposedly made of foil / Sudo Null IT News

Every time I read Russian forums that touch on the topic of manned flights to the moon, I come across absolute ignorance among members of the forum (including among technically educated people). It is widely believed in RuNet that the lunar module, designed and built by Grumman Aerospace Corporation to land a man on the surface of the Moon as part of the Apollo program, is made almost of foil. They say the thickness of the walls of his cabin is so thin (most often they talk about three layers of foil) that it can be pierced with a foot, and the strength of the structure is provided by internal pressure. This delusion among domestic readers has been going on since 1976 years old, and is based on an incorrect interpretation of the phrase of astronaut James McDivitt (James Alton McDivitt), uttered by him at one of the press conferences before the flight of the Apollo 9 spacecraft. Initially, it was misinterpreted by the Soviet science fiction writer and journalist Vladimir Stepanovich Gubarev, who wrote the book Space Bridges, popular in the USSR (published in 1976 in Moscow by the Molodaya Gvardiya publishing house). Vladimir Gubarev writes (quote from the book):
“R. Schweikart must be very careful. One wrong move and he will damage the moon cabin. Its walls are so thin and fragile that a person can break through them with his foot, – D. McDivitt said before the start. “On Earth, the walls of the lunar cabin in many places can be damaged even by an accidentally dropped screwdriver …”

Another journalist, no less popular promoter of astronautics, Gubarev’s colleague – Yaroslav Kirillovich Golovanov writes in the well-known book “The Truth About the APOLLO Program” (practically copies the text of his colleague, adding his own opinion, which is essentially the opinion of an amateur ):
“Schweikart must be very careful,” McDivitt warned. One wrong move and he will damage the lunar module. Its walls are so thin and fragile that a person can break through them with his foot. On Earth, the walls of the lunar compartment can be damaged even by an accidentally dropped screwdriver …
For two weeks I examined the lunar cabin, which stood in the hall where the press was located during the Soyuz-19 and Apollo flights in Houston. “Spider” is made of metal foil. Not from the one, of course, in which chocolates are wrapped, but still, if you choose from two definitions: metal sheet or metal foil – foil is more accurate. In a vacuum, the rigidity of this design was increased due to internal inflation, but still it remained very slender. ” (source)

Takeoff stage of the LM-12 lunar module of the Apollo 17 spacecraft. NASA photo AS17-149-22857

Yaroslav Golovanov’s opinion about the design “made of foil” and “increasing its rigidity in vacuum” looks especially ridiculous if you look at photos of the LTA-1 lunar module taken at the Cradle Of Aviation Museum, located in East Garden City on Long Island, New York:

LTA-1 (Lunar Test Article 1) is the first instance of the lunar module (prototype) built in 1966, which is structurally similar to serial models intended for space flights. Prior to LTA-1, Grumman Aerospace Corporation built only full-scale mock-ups of the lunar module (the so-called Mock-Up’s: M-1, M-5, TM-1). Structurally, these mock-ups were made of metal and wood, intended for presentation to the customer (NASA), development of layout solutions for the placement of various auxiliary equipment and astronaut training. But the power structure of LTA-1, as well as all systems (propulsion systems, their ASG, electrical equipment, etc.) were made according to working drawings in compliance with all technological processes. This instance was intended to work out the manufacturing process, assembly and further debugging of the lunar module, when the design was still underway, as well as for static, dynamic and electrical tests:

Docking of the LTA-1 lunar module takeoff and landing stage in the conducted electromagnetic interference test room at the Grumman Aerospace Corporation facility, Bethpage, Long Island, New York. NASA photo S67-22164

The main structural difference between the LTA-1 and serial samples flying into space is the front hatch, designed for the exit and entry of the crew from the lunar module takeoff stage. On LTA-1 it is round. Starting with LTA-8 and on all serial samples of the lunar module, at the request of the astronauts, the hatch was made in a rectangular shape. Experiments carried out aboard the NASA “flying laboratory” (a converted Boeing KC-135A Stratotanker tanker) showed that under lunar gravity it was much more convenient for astronauts to squeeze through a rectangular hatch in a spacesuit with a PLSS life support system. At 1974, after the completion of the Apollo program, LTA-1 was transferred to the National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, located in Washington, DC, and in June 1998 was transferred for restoration and further display at the Cradle Of Aviation Museum, where it is currently located:

The lunar module of the Apollo spacecraft structurally consists of two stages: landing and takeoff. The landing stage is equipped with a liquid-propellant rocket engine (LPRE) for deorbiting an artificial lunar satellite, landing approach and soft landing. Landing is carried out on a four-legged chassis with disc supports. The overload during landing is reduced by shortening the landing gear legs, which are telescopic rods. The kinetic energy upon impact on the lunar surface is absorbed by the collapsible core of the aluminum alloy honeycomb structure. The crew, consisting of two astronauts (commander and co-pilot), is located in the pressurized cockpit of the takeoff stage, which is installed above the landing stage. The descent of the astronauts to the lunar surface is carried out by a ladder fixed on one of the telescopic legs of the landing gear, located on the side of the forward hatch. The takeoff stage is equipped with a rocket engine for taking off from the surface (the landing stage serves as the launch pad at this stage) and entering the orbit of an artificial moon satellite. The takeoff stage is also equipped with a reactive control system (RCS). The DCS is designed to control not only the takeoff stage, but the entire lunar module (when it is in the landing configuration) in six degrees of freedom. LRE RSU can work in a group or separately – continuously or pulsed. Since the takeoff stage accommodated the crew, its design is of the greatest interest in the framework of the considered mass delusion.

The main structure of the lunar module takeoff stage is a semi-monocoque structure made of well-welded duralumin alloy 2219 (the main alloying element is copper) and high-strength wrought aluminum alloy 7075-T6 (the main alloying element is zinc), which have isotropic characteristics. The main structure consists of three main parts: cockpit, center section and rear equipment compartment:

Only cockpit and center section sealed. These two parts are a welded and forged structure formed by a cylindrical shell and reinforced with stringers riveted around the circumference, formed from sheet duralumin, as well as transverse milled spars, to which structural elements of the lunar module takeoff stage (beams, connecting brackets, etc.) are attached. .). In the cylindrical part of the cockpit above the commander’s workplace, a docking window opening was made, reinforced around the perimeter. The front part of the cockpit is formed by flat milled panels of sheet duralumin, also reinforced with stringers and spars at the folds. In front of the cockpit there are two triangular openings for forward viewing windows, reinforced along the perimeter, and between them, below, an opening for the front hatch (round or rectangular).
According to the technical reports on the lunar module (NTRS archives), the thickness of the walls of the shell of the flight deck and the central section of the takeoff stage of the lunar module reaches 0.065 inches (1.651 mm). This value is an order of magnitude greater than the thickness of the foil (in most countries, the generally accepted definition of foil is the value of sheet metal thickness up to 0.2 mm), and thicker than the skin of supersonic passenger aircraft Tu-144 (1.2 mm) and Concorde (1.5 mm), which were operated under more severe conditions than the lunar module: aerodynamic heating during flights at high supersonic speeds in the stratosphere, cyclic stresses in the sealed fuselage structure due to constant pressure drops, aerodynamic effects (bending, twisting), etc. During operation On Tu-144 and Concorde aircraft, there were no cases of “piercing the skin with the foot”.
In some places (relaxed), in order to reduce the weight of the structure, the wall thickness was reduced by chemical milling to 0.012 inches (0.3 mm).
A propulsion system is attached to the main structure of the take-off stage of the lunar module, consisting of a Rocketdyne RS-18 take-off rocket engine (developed on the basis of the Bell 8247 engine) rigidly fixed in the central section, two fuel tanks for it: from the left side of the central section using supporting rod beams a spherical fuel tank (“Aerozine-50”) was installed, a spherical oxidizer tank (nitrogen tetroxide) was similarly installed on the starboard side of the central section.
Rod beams are attached to the rear of the central section, as well as to the cockpit through brackets, holding four DCS units with sixteen Marquardt R-4D rocket engines (grouped by four engines). Four cylindrical fuel tanks with hemispherical bottoms are located symmetrically on the left and right sides of the central section. Fuel components are similar to those used in the main propulsion system. Between the tanks with fuel and oxidizer for LRE RSU, spherical tanks with helium are installed on each side for the displacement system of these engines. Two spherical water tanks are attached to the upper part of the central section, as well as blocks of transmitting antennas.
Propellant gas (helium) for the main propulsion system is also stored in spherical tanks. They are located in the rear compartment of the equipment along with two helium pressure reduction modules, a control valve for the main propulsion system (controls the supply of fuel components displaced by helium boost pressure into the combustion chamber of the RS-18 take-off LRE) and a cross-controlled control valve for the RSU LRE. Also in the rear compartment of the equipment above the spherical helium tanks are two spherical tanks with gaseous oxygen for the life support system of the crew. On a special remote panel of the rear compartment of the equipment, blocks of the lunar module radio-electronic equipment systems are mounted, which are responsible for radio communications, the operation of on-board systems (alarm, warning) and blocks of an on-board digital computer (OCVM) responsible for navigation. All systems are interconnected by multi-core cables and wires that run along the entire surface of the main structure of the lunar module takeoff stage. Power is supplied by two silver-zinc batteries.
To protect the main structure of the lunar module takeoff stage and all the systems described above from the effects of outer space (temperature fluctuations in vacuum, micrometeorites, the impact of rocket engine jets), a thermal insulation coating and micrometeorite shielding are used, as well as a special thermal protective paint applied to the micrometeorite shield.
The thermal insulation coating is a multi-segment coating of special multilayer blankets, each segment of which is stretched over the frame of the main structure of the takeoff stage. Fastening is carried out using special studs*, which are attached either to special brackets or to the power set (to stringers and spars), providing a minimum gap of 25.4 mm between the inside of the blanket and the outside of the cockpit shell and the center section, as well as on a truss structure surrounding the fuel tanks of the main propulsion system and the rear equipment compartment. Each blanket consists of a set of the following layers (counting from the inside): one layer of aluminized kapton (polyamide film developed by DuPont, thickness 0.5 mm), ten layers of aluminized mylar (film based on synthetic polyester fiber developed by DuPont, thickness of each layer 0.15 mm), fifteen layers of aluminized kapton (thickness of each layer 0.5 mm). The number of layers of insulation blankets may vary depending on the location of the segment. In the area of ​​impact of the LRE jets of the DCS, an additional thermal insulation coating is applied on top of the above layers, consisting of one layer of nickel foil (0.5 mm thick), an Inconel mesh, and an Inconel coating 1.25 mm thick. Blankets overlap and are held together with special staples. Joints are sealed with adhesive tapes:

Scheme of installation of the truss frame of the outer casing on the main structure of the takeoff stage of the lunar module

Scheme of installation of thermal insulation coating on the main structure of the lunar module takeoff stage

0003
Scheme of installation of micrometeorite protection (outer shell) on the thermal insulation coating of the take-off stage of the lunar module

Its cutting by sectors is identical. Fastening is carried out using the same special studs, with the help of which a thermal insulation coating is attached to the main structure of the take-off stage of the lunar module. The studs above the duvets are extended to provide a minimum clearance of 25.4mm between them and the protection sheets. The joints between the sheets are sealed with adhesive tape.
In order to avoid swelling of the thermal insulation coating and micrometeoritic protection due to a sharp drop in ambient pressure during the climb of the launch vehicle, the blankets and sheets are provided with contoured ventilation holes through which pressure equalization occurs.
In the area of ​​influence of the LRE RSU jets, the micrometeorite protection is covered with a special black heat-protective paint (most of the micrometeorite protection of the cockpit is covered with it).
If you look at the numerous photographs of the takeoff stage of the lunar module, then for the average person it seems that the outer shell is made of thin sheets of aluminum, glued in places with adhesive tape, and there is a sealed shell that is “easy to break through with your foot”, because it is “made of foil “. This misconception was clearly demonstrated by Yaroslav Golovanov in a book well-known for astronautics lovers.

P. S.: A detailed photo report (Walk Around, 57 photos of the takeoff stage and 49 photos of the landing stage) on the LTA-1 lunar module can be viewed here

© Sergey Vyatkin, 2014

* – studs provide an equal gap between the main lunar module takeoff stage design, thermal insulation coating and micrometeorite protection.

Dressing room “Model 22” price, photo and description

Dressing room “Model 22” price, photo and description – GILD Furniture in Lipetsk

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