How many units am i allowed to drive: License Classes | Georgia Department of Driver Services

License Classes | Georgia Department of Driver Services

A Georgia Driver’s License is classified according to the type and weight of vehicles that may be operated by the person to whom they are issued. 

Explanation of Classes

Class A (Commercial) – Any combination of vehicles (power unit and trailer) with a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) of 26,001 pounds or more, provided the GVWR of the vehicle(s) being towed is in excess of 10,000 pounds. Includes vehicles in Classes B and C. Knowledge and driving skill exams are required. Must be at least 18 years old, though restricted to intrastate driving only until age 21.

Class B (Commercial) – Any single vehicle with a GVWR of 26,001 pounds or more, or any such vehicle towing another vehicle, not in excess of 10,000 pounds. Includes vehicles in Class C, but not Class A.  Knowledge and driving skill exams are required. Must be at least 18 years old, though restricted to intrastate driving only until age 21.

Class CP (Permit) – Available to any person at least 15 years of age if they pass a knowledge test and a vision examination, and meet school enrollment requirements.  Allows the licensee to operate a Class C non-commercial vehicle while there is a licensed driver, at least 21 years of age occupying the front seat beside the driver who is fit and capable of exercising control over the vehicle, or when accompanied by a disabled parent/guardian who has been issued an identification card containing the international handicapped symbol.

Class C (Non-Commercial and Commercial) – Any single vehicle with a GVWR not in excess of 26,000 pounds; or any such vehicle towing a vehicle with a GVWR, not in excess of 10,000 pounds; or any such vehicle towing a vehicle with a GVWR in excess of 10,000 pounds, provided that the combination of vehicles has a gross combined vehicle weight rating, not in excess of 26,000 pounds, and any self-propelled or towed vehicle that is equipped to serve as temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, or travel purposes and is used solely as a family or personal conveyance. Includes three-wheeled vehicles using a steering wheel.

Class C (Commercial) – licenses are issued only if the vehicle is designed to carry sixteen or more passengers (including the driver), or utilized to transport hazardous materials in quantities that require a placard. Knowledge and driving skill exams may be required upon initial issuance.

Class D Provisional license for Class C vehicles – available to 16-year-olds if they have held a class CP license for at least 1 year and 1 day; have not been convicted of any major traffic violations; meet school enrollment requirements, and have completed a Driver’s Education course consisting of classroom and behind-the-wheel training.  Teens not wanting to satisfy the Driver’s Education requirements may wait until they are 17 years of age to obtain their Class D license; all other requirements must be met.  Required to pass a road test. Class D license holders are limited to the following conditions:

  • cannot operate a motor vehicle between the hours of 12:00 AM and 5:00 AM,

  • during the first six-month period after issuance, cannot operate a motor vehicle with any passenger who is not a member of the driver’s immediate family (defined as the license holder’s parents and step-parents, grandparents, siblings, and step-siblings, children, and any other person who resides at the license holder’s residence)

  • during the second six-month period after issuance, cannot operate a motor vehicle with more
    than one passenger under the age of 21 who is not a member of the driver’s immediate family, and

  • for the remainder of the Class D license period, cannot operate a motor vehicle when more
    than three passengers under the age of 21 are not members of the driver’s immediate family.

Class E (Non-commercial) – Any combination of vehicles with a GVWR of 26,001 pounds or more, provided the GVWR of the vehicle(s) being towed is in excess of 10,000 pounds. Includes vehicles in Classes F and C. Must be at least 18 years of age, pass a knowledge and skill test, and possess a valid Class C license when applying.

Class F (Non-commercial) – Any single vehicle with a GVWR of 26,001 pounds or more, or any such vehicle towing a vehicle with a GVWR, not in excess of 10,000 pounds. Includes vehicles in Class C. Must be at least 18 years of age, pass a knowledge and skill test, and possess a valid Class C license when applying.

Class M Motorcycles – Motorcycles, motor-driven cycles, and three-wheeled motorcycles with handlebars (must be 17 years of age).

Class MP (Permit) – Motorcycle Instructional Permit that allows the rider to operate a motorcycle except after dark, with passengers, or on expressways/interstates (must be at least 16 years of age and have completed driver’s education program described for Class D license; otherwise, must be 17 years of age).

Class AP and BP (Permits)– Allows the licensee to operate either a class A or B vehicle while a person at least 21 years of age who is licensed for the class of vehicle being operated, who is occupying the front seat beside the driver, who is fit and capable of exercising control over the vehicle.

Class EP and FP (Permits) – Allows the licensee to operate a vehicle of the appropriate noncommercial class when accompanied by a licensed driver, qualified in the vehicle being operated, who is fit and capable of exercising control over the vehicle, and is occupying a seat beside the driver as an instructor.

Other Vehicles

  • Mopeds – A Moped is any motor-driven cycle with an engine not exceeding 50 cubic centimeters (3.05 cubic inches) that can propel the cycle at a speed not to exceed 30 miles per hour (MPH) and does not require clutching or shifting. Mopeds are exempt from the provisions relating to the registration and licensing of motor vehicles.
    • Rules to operate mopeds on Georgia roads and highways:
      • Must be 15 years of age and have in their possession a valid driver’s license, instructional permit, or limited permit.
      • Must wear protective headgear (motorcycle helmet).
      • No-tag is required.
      • Every person operating a moped upon a roadway must obey the same traffic laws governing drivers of motor vehicles.
      • May not use limited access highways or other roadways where the minimum speed limit is above 35 mph.
  • Low-Speed Vehicles – A Low-Speed vehicle is any four-wheeled electric vehicle whose top speed attainable in one mile is greater than 20 miles per hour but not greater than 25 miles per hour on a paved level surface and which is manufactured in compliance with those federal motor vehicle safety standards for low-speed vehicles set forth in 49 C.F.R. Section 571.500 and in effect on January 1, 2001.
    • Rules to operate Low-Speed Vehicles on Georgia roads and highways: Drivers of low-speed vehicles are subject to the Uniform Rules of the Road except with regard to provisions that cannot apply to such vehicles by virtue of their nature.
      • All low-speed vehicles are entitled to full use of a lane, and no motor vehicle shall be driven in such a manner as to deprive any low-speed vehicle of the full use of a lane.
      • The operator of a low-speed vehicle shall not overtake and pass in the same lane occupied by the vehicle being overtaken.
      • No person shall operate a low-speed vehicle between lanes of traffic or between adjacent lines or rows of vehicles.
      • Low-speed vehicles shall not be operated two or more abreast in a single lane.
      • Low-speed vehicles shall be operated only on any highway where the posted speed limit does not exceed 35 miles per hour.
      • The operator of a low-speed vehicle shall not operate such vehicle on any highway where the posted speed limit exceeds 35 miles per hour.

NOTE: Drivers of such vehicles must have a valid driver’s license.


How Many Units of Alcohol to Drive Legally in the UK?

If you’re heading out for a night on the tiles and wondering if you should take your car keys, the answer is no. The drink drive limit in the UK is incredibly strict, and the safest thing you can do if you’re planning to drink is not drive.

But if you’re the designated driver and you’d like to have a low-alcohol beer while your friends drink the real stuff, you’ll need to know how much you can drink and drive. 

Here, we help you understand what is the legal limit for alcohol, what influences the alcohol levels in your body, and the penalties you might face if you get caught drinking and driving.

What are alcohol units?

Alcohol units help us make sense of the gap between having a drink that is light on alcohol, such as a low-alcohol beer, and something heavier, like a glass of red or a Long Island iced tea. 

A unit of alcohol is defined as 8g or 10ml of pure alcohol. This means a low-alcohol beer of 1.2% ABV clocks in at only 0.6 units of alcohol. In comparison, one Long Island Iced Tea contains at least two units of alcohol.  

They’re both only one drink, but that iced tea packs far more of a punch.

How many units of alcohol can I drink and still drive?

It always bears repeating that the safest way to drive involves no alcohol.

However, in answering how many units are over the limit, it is generally estimated that the drink-drive limits in England, Wales and Northern Ireland would allow men the equivalent of 4 units of alcohol. This is around two pints of normal-strength beer. 

On the other hand, women may be able to drink three units of alcohol and remain under the limit. This is about one large glass of wine or a little more than a pint of regular-strength beer.

Here is a breakdown of some of the most common drinks and how many units they amount to:


  • A pint of 3.8% ABV (alcohol by volume) lager is 2.2 units
  • Half a pint of 3.8% ABV lager is 1.1 unit
  • A pint of 5.2% ABV lager comes in at 3 units
  • A 660 ml bottle of 3. 8% ABV lager is 2.5 units
  • A 440 ml can of cider with 5.5% ABV is 2 units


  • A 250 ml (standard cup measure) of 11% ABV wine is 2.8 units
  • A 750 ml bottle of 11% ABV wine is 8.4 units
  • A 125 ml glass of sparkling wine is 1.5 units

Spirits and mixers:

  • A single 25 ml shot of spirits is 1 unit — this could be a gin and tonic or vodka soda.
  • A 275 ml Alcopop of 4% ABV is 1.1 units.

Alcohol units, while a useful starting point, only tell half the story. 

Many factors influence how alcohol is absorbed by our bodies, which means a large glass of wine may leave one person under the limit. Meanwhile, the same drink could tip another person over the legal limit and into dangerous territory.

What influences the alcohol levels in your body?

There are several factors that can influence your alcohol levels, including:

  • Sex, body type and metabolism.

The differing guidelines on how much men and women can drink is not accidental.

Those assigned female at birth tend to be smaller than those assigned male, which means that they often have less tissue available to absorb alcohol. In addition, women tend to have lower levels of dehydrogenase, the enzyme that breaks down alcohol before it reaches the bloodstream.

Furthermore, fitness levels and your body’s fat-to-muscle ratio also have a part to play. Muscle has more water than fat, which means alcohol is diluted more in people with more muscle tissue.

  • Medications.

Alcohol is, strictly speaking, a drug. As such, it can interact with other medications you may be taking, exaggerating the impact of any alcohol you consume. It’s always a good idea to check in with your doctor to see if drinking is allowed with your particular medication.

  • Tired, hungry and dehydrated?

Your mum was right. A full stomach does make a difference on a night out. Eating before you drink means that alcohol absorption is slowed (although not stopped). 

Similarly, being dehydrated means there’s less water in your blood to dilute alcohol. This will also increase the effects of the alcohol on your body, and your blood alcohol concentration will rise quicker.

Finally, the more tired you are, the less efficient your liver is at processing alcohol, so it stays in your system for longer. 

  • Carbonation.

The alcohol in bubbly drinks such as beer and sparkling wine is more easily absorbed into the bloodstream than in non-carbonated options like red wine or alcohol mixed with water or fruit juice.

Can I drive after drinking 2 units of alcohol?

While two units of alcohol may keep you under the legal limit should you be breathalysed on the road, that’s not to say you can neck a pint and immediately hit the road safely. 

Your liver plays a significant role in dealing with the alcohol in your system, converting it into water and carbon monoxide. At best, your liver can do this for one unit of alcohol an hour.

So, in theory, after consuming two units of alcohol in a pint of 3.8% ABV lager, you’d need to wait at least 2 hours before driving to be safe

How long after drinking am I safe to drive?

The truth is that even the morning after a night of heavy drinking, you are likely to have a high concentration of alcohol in your bloodstream if you’re heading off to work at 7am.

According to drink driving charity, you should allow one hour as a baseline for alcohol to absorb and one additional hour for every alcohol unit consumed. 

If you happen to have enjoyed a 750 ml bottle of wine, you would need to wait at least 9 to 10 hours before hitting the road. But considering there’s no one-size-fits-all approach to knowing exactly how long your body takes to get rid of the alcohol, it may be safer to wait a little longer.

What is the alcohol limit for driving in the UK?

Knowing how many units of alcohol you’ve consumed is a good start. Still, it’s important to note that the standardised legal drink drive limits relate to the alcohol concentration in your blood, breath or urine. And as we’ve discussed, this alcohol concentration level can be made worse by factors outside your control, like age, weight and sex.

What is the drink drive limit in England, Wales and Northern Ireland?

According to,

  • 35 micrograms of alcohol per 100 ml of breath
  • 80 milligrams (mg) of alcohol per 100 ml of blood
  • 107 mg of alcohol per 100 ml of urine

What is the drink drive limit in Scotland?

The drink-drive limits in Scotland are slightly lower than in the rest of the UK,

  • 22 micrograms of alcohol per 100 ml of breath
  • 50 milligrams (mg) of alcohol per 100 ml of blood
  • 67 mg of alcohol per 100 ml of urine

Why is the drink-drive limit not zero?

When looking at the numbers and how difficult it is to predict how much alcohol there may be in your system, you may wonder why the drink-drive limit is not simply zero.  

The answer is that everybody processes alcohol differently. You could still have traces of alcohol left in your system even though it has been some time since you last had a drink. In addition, the alcohol in everyday items like mouthwash and some cough mixtures, for example, may show up in testing. 

The current limits mean that police can differentiate between those with alcohol residue in their systems and those who may be impaired while driving as a result of drinking.

What are the drunk driving penalties in the UK?

Drink driving is a criminal offence, which can carry hefty penalties. 

Drink-driving cases are heard in criminal court. And if you’re found to be driving over the legal limit or unfit to drive through drink, you could face jail time, a criminal record, penalty points, an unlimited fine and a driving ban.

According to, aside from criminal prosecution, a drink-driving conviction also means that:

  • It’s likely your car insurance costs will increase substantially.
  • It could impact your employment if you drive for work, as your employer will see the conviction listed on your licence.
  • It may make travel to countries like the USA more difficult.

In summary

It’s no secret that alcohol dulls reaction times and cognitive ability, so not driving if you plan to drink is always the best practice. 

The existence of drunk driving limits might suggest that there’s a certain amount of alcohol you can drink and still safely and legally drive. The truth is there is no catch-all here. 

If you’re drinking on a night out, consider a designated driver, a sober pickup, a licensed taxi service or public transport and be sure to get home safely!

Is it worth learning to drive a car with a gun: pros and cons

Pros and cons

Readers’ arguments

Eduard Solodin

drives an automatic

Author’s profile

Proponents of different types of gearboxes are constantly arguing which is better – automatic or mechanical.

To help those who have not yet decided on this issue, we asked the readers of Tinkoff Magazine which car is better to learn how to drive. We have collected the main arguments for and against cars with automatic transmission – choose a side and share your opinion in the comments.

These are comments from Community readers. Collected into one material, carefully edited and formatted according to editorial standards.

👍 Pro: driving skills on a mechanic may not be useful

chooses an automatic

I studied mechanics, listening to all the arguments like “on vacation it will be easier to rent a car” and “you never know.”

As a result, this skill never came in handy for me. I moved to drive immediately to a car with an automatic. Six years have passed – the skill of shifting gears is almost lost. If I rent a car, then it is also automatic. It doesn’t cost so much to sacrifice comfort. Finding it in any rental office is not difficult. Plus, for an unfamiliar car, the clutch may work differently, even for an experienced driver it can be difficult. Especially if the car is old and broken.

Some muscle memory, of course, is retained, but if you don’t get used to driving a manual, then you will feel very uncomfortable when you switch to it. If I buy a car for myself, then it will also only be automatic – why retrain?

In general, my recommendation: if you already know that you will drive a car with mechanics, or plan to be a professional driver, study mechanics, of course. If not, especially if you plan to rent a license “just for yourself” and drive occasionally on weekends – rent it on the machine and don’t suffer.

👎 Against: manual gear shifting gives more freedom

Little Potato
chooses which gear to turn on

Studied and passed in 2014. We became the last group that was allowed to pass the city on the machine and at the same time get a driver’s license without the “AT” mark. Yes, there were gaps in the law then.

I studied mechanics. I traveled quite confidently and was sure that I would pass the exams without any problems. My instructor was sure of the same.

Passed the autodrom on the first try, immediately went to hand over the city. I waited for several hours, as I was almost the last one on the list. Disappointing news came from those who surrendered: only a few surrendered the city.

When it was my turn, I was literally shaking with fear. As a result, I immediately made a bunch of mistakes: when stopping, I tried to start from second gear, which caused it to stall twice. When turning around, it also screwed up. All in all, it was a failure.

The instructor advised not to worry and pass the city on the machine. I did not resist and listened to him. A week later, I successfully retaken the city and received the coveted plastic.

I have been driving a mechanic for eight years now. I don’t see any problems. My husband wants a machine gun, I’m against it. I believe that the mechanics give more freedom when maneuvering, driving on snowy and icy roads. And it’s just very nice to choose when and what gear to turn on.

👍 For: the manual transmission exam is passed only because of inexperience or when there is no choice

Vladimir Babarykin
buys cars with AT

When I passed, there was no alternative – mechanics. If I took it now and was young and stupid, I would also go to mechanics. If I rented it now and already in a meaningful state, I would choose an automatic machine.

What is the point of driving a mechanic every day? For what? When I bought the car I drive now, I didn’t even consider the mechanics. And I won’t buy the next car on the mechanics either.

👎 Against: you may still have to drive cars with mechanical transmission

Roman Popov
supported his girlfriend in changing cars

Studied mechanics in 2015. And I rented it in 2016, as soon as I turned 18. Of course, the first car for any kid from the region that he can afford is a Zhiguli, or he had to always beg for a daddy’s car. Therefore, there was no question of choosing the type of gearbox.

When moving to the capital, I already bought a car on the machine – it just happened. Since then, when choosing a gearbox, I prefer automatic transmission. But often in the company where I work, I have to use working machines, and they are all on mechanics. To be honest, driving immediately takes on colors, but after a couple of days of driving around Moscow, you start to want an automatic machine back. Therefore, I don’t regret a bit that I passed the mechanics.

The girl also studied mechanics, but from the second unsuccessful attempt to pass the exam, she blamed the gearbox for this.

Now he is going to check in at the machine. I don’t see anything wrong with this and I support it: I can’t imagine the situation that she will drive a Mercedes Sprinter or VAZ 2107.

And my father has been driving a mechanic for 35 years. Sitting on the machine, he convulsively starts to pull the gear stick and does not know where to put his left foot.

Dmitry Nikonov
looked into the future

A year ago, I would advise you to learn to drive an automatic machine, because there are actually fewer and fewer cars with mechanics every year. Even the cheapest Ladas are already equipped with an automatic.

Now I would advise you to study mechanics. Considering how much the cars began to cost in general, you need to keep in mind the option that you may have to drive a Lada with mechanics.

👍 Pros: there will be no time to get used to the car during the exam

Liza Stakhova
regretted that she had passed her driver’s license

Passed her license in the summer of 2021. I studied mechanics – I cursed everything. I myself chose a manual transmission, I wanted the rights to be full, and not with a note about the machine. If I chose again – only automatic.

Firstly, all cars have different clutch sensitivity, and at the traffic police exam no one will give time to feel how it is and what. One awkward movement – and a retake. When there was a playground, it was specially started from a flyover, where 95% of the examinees were eliminated.

Secondly, the skill of driving a car with a manual transmission is lost very quickly if it is not constantly used, and in anticipation of retakes, it simply turns into dust. I hate both mechanics and the traffic police system, and because of the negative experience, all driving in general. For a year and a half I used it once immediately after receiving it, I didn’t drive again.

👎 Against: after a manual transmission, you can drive any car

Cuckoo tales
learning to drive

Right now I am learning to drive on the mechanics. All problems with starting off and other crap go away in about five or six lessons, and then they are polished in further training.

I chose mechanics for two reasons. Firstly, the very argument that if you study mechanics, you can drive both it and an automatic. Secondly, a family car with a manual transmission, but the main argument is the previous one. Plus, I don’t have a traumatic experience of close people on the topic of terrifying mechanics, so all the talk that the mechanics are terrible passed me by, because I didn’t initially consider them to be such.

My instructor has a theory that “machine gunners” are initially less self-confident people, therefore, on average, they pass worse than “mechanics” in the traffic police exam. But these are his feelings.

But for driving in traffic jams, it seems to me that an automatic is better, since you don’t have to do so many actions to start and change gears. Although we drove around Russia with friends in an automatic, and there are times when it performs worse than an experienced driver with a manual transmission. But there are also a lot of moments when the driver is stupid on the mechanics.

Alexey Petrov
quickly adapted to the machine

Of course, it’s better to study mechanics so that later you can drive any car if the need arises, and not fall, like Richard Gere in Pretty Woman, into the clutches of a predatory and treacherous woman who knows about three pedals: )

But there is a nuance: it is much more difficult to hand over to the traffic police on the mechanics. All their tricks for squeezing re-change and money for this are sharpened: starting uphill in an unfamiliar car, where you still don’t feel the grip, putting a flag in the back close to the bumper, double pedals, the city.

But in general, it is better to study mechanics, and to drive – on an automatic machine. When I bought a normal car with an automatic, I kept thinking whether to take a couple of lessons before picking it up from the salon. But then he just sat down and drove off. Adapting to the automatic took a couple of minutes of quiet driving. On the contrary, it would not have happened. It’s just that you quickly get used to the good things.

👍 For: in the city it is more convenient to use an automatic machine

Tatyana Ko
does not regret her choice

Last summer I decided to get training on a car and chose a machine. It’s already hard for me to learn on a car, so I decided not to throw myself into all the hard things right away, but to start gradually. I learned that if necessary, then it would be possible to turn it in for mechanics for additional money.

Now I can hardly imagine that I can drive around the city on a mechanic. Everyone chooses a machine because of convenience. Car sharing is also automatic. Even if I had studied mechanics, most likely, without further experience, this skill would have been lost.

But there were also doubts. Friends talked about renting cars abroad – they usually offer it on mechanics. There is either no automatic machine, or much more expensive. But for me this is not a strong argument.

Still right, it turns out, some inferior ones: “Now, if you suddenly have to urgently get behind the wheel of a mechanic, but you can’t!” But I thought this: at that stage I had no driving experience at all, and in any case, this situation would have put me in a dead end. Now there will be a 50% chance that I can get into some car and drive.

As a result, I learned how to drive an automatic, I drive a car sharing. Delimobil allows you to drive immediately after obtaining the rights. As long as I don’t regret it.

👎 Against: mechanics are indispensable on the roads

Las palabras
likes to control the car

I love mechanics. I have been driving since the 90s, I buy all cars only on mechanics. I have many hobbies when I need a car with all-wheel drive and mechanics to get out of any asshole, even in winter, even in summer. I rent what I like and what is more profitable, whether it be a mechanic or an automatic. Otherwise, I remember how one woman cried in Crete – she demanded a jeep with a machine gun: “I don’t know how to drive anything else!” If I’m going long distance, I turn on cruise control on the payer.

It seems to me that manual or automatic is a matter of habit. But I like mechanics more: I like to control the car, shift gears, accelerate and so on.

👍 Pros: manual transmission is obsolete

prefers convenience

I studied mechanics because everyone around them said: “If you learn to drive it, you will drive everything.”

Strongly disagree. Mechanics is like a steam engine, the last century. There are fewer and fewer cars with such a transmission, and thank God. The inconvenience for Moscow is terrible. No savings, no benefits. Automatic transmissions are already present, and it is immensely convenient.

👎 Against: manual transmission is more reliable and maintainable

takes into account the age of cars

I would advise you to study mechanics. It not only provides more driving opportunities, but is also more maintainable. I understand that modern automatic machines almost “do not think”, but still these are only new models, and in our country the average age is 14 years.

Replacing the clutch, release is not such a problem, I think many have done it themselves. The mechanics are more reliable. Of course, if we all drove new cars, maybe there would be another choice. But alas, the fleet of cars will only grow old.

For and against. Readers choose a side in financial disputes

Amendments to the Federal Law “On Weapons” in 2023


Dmitry Sergeyev

security specialist

Author profile

The law was published on the official Internet portal of legal information on June 28, 2021. But it will enter into force one year from the date of publication – June 29, 2022.

Until next summer, weapons can be purchased and registered according to the old rules. But you need to know what will change in advance. Moreover, administrative fines for violation of legislation related to weapons will also increase.

I’ll tell you what will change for ordinary owners.

Source: Federal Law No. 231-FZ of June 28, 2021

New concepts added

As before. Article 1 of the Law “On Weapons” did not contain separate concepts for smooth-bore and rifled weapons. As a result, there was a loophole: from the point of view of the law, weapons were also considered smooth-bore if they had rifling in the barrel, but they were not located along the entire length of the barrel. And also the one whose barrel has a special shape from the inside, giving rotation to the bullet.

In addition, there were no concepts of trigger and impact mechanisms and a clear definition of what “weapon modification” means.

As it will be. In the new edition of the law, only those weapons are considered to be smoothbore, where the barrel has a smooth and even inner surface throughout.

Several new concepts are also introduced into the law.

Weapon trigger – designed to control the start and end of firing.

The striking mechanism of the weapon – ensures the actuation of the striking means of initiating the cartridge.

Weapon conversion will be considered:

  1. Replacing or changing the shape and dimensions of the main parts of the weapon – the barrel, bolt, drum, frame, receiver or parts of the shock and trigger mechanisms.
  2. Replacement or alteration of parts of decommissioned, pneumatic, signal, gas or projectile firearms, if as a result the characteristics taken into account during certification have changed.
  3. Destruction or change of markings, numbers, brands of weapons.

What does this mean for owners. Tuning weapons is not prohibited – as before, you can change the stock for a new one, polish the barrel or paint it. But now it is better not to remove or paint over the markings on the weapon and any stamps on it.

How to buy weapons

Changes also apply to owners of crossbows and bows: installing elements that change the draw force can lead to problems. The same applies to pneumatic weapons.

Barrel drilling, which allows you to give the bullet rotation, and any rifling, regardless of their length, automatically transfers the weapon to the rifled category – which means that it will be possible to buy it only after five years of owning a smoothbore.

Weapon modification is prohibited.

Weapon recognized as a source of increased danger

As before. In the Civil Code, only an approximate list of sources of increased danger was given – and in each individual case, the court itself decided whether this or that object belongs to such sources. For example, depending on the situation, a dog that bit a neighbor could also be recognized as a source of increased danger. But they might not have recognized it, since such a norm is not spelled out in the law.

As it will be. Regardless of the situation, weapons will be considered a source of increased danger – since this rule is spelled out in the law.

What does this mean for owners. The owner of the gun will be obliged to compensate for the damage caused by his weapon, regardless of his own fault. For example, if the owner left a gun unattended while hunting and another person damaged someone else’s car with a shot from this gun, the owner of the gun will have to pay.

Art. 1079Civil Code of the Russian Federation

The only way to avoid this is to prove that the harm arose as a result of force majeure, such as war or revolution. And the intent of the victim also releases from the obligation to compensate for the damage. But all this will have to be proven in court.

The National Guard will have to be notified about the storage, donation, sale of decommissioned weapons

As it was before. A decommissioned weapon is a firearm in which each main part has been technically modified to make it impossible to fire a cartridge. It was sold freely, no permits were required for its storage.

As it will be. Sale will still be free. But the fact that such a weapon is kept by a person will need to be notified to the National Guard. At the time of writing this article, the notification form and its procedure have not yet been developed, but they are likely to appear in the near future.

How to re-register a smooth-bore hunting weapon?

The owner of a decommissioned weapon has the right to sell it or donate it – there is no need to obtain a separate permit for this. But the seller will also have to notify the Russian Guard about this.

What does this mean for owners. Those who bought decommissioned weapons before the law came into force will also have to notify the Russian Guard: storage without such notification is prohibited.

Increased the age that gives the right to buy weapons

As before. Any citizen over the age of 18 had the right to apply for a license to purchase weapons. The exception was a weapon of limited destruction – it could be purchased from the age of 21.

What to do? 06/18/19

Is it possible to use a stun gun for self-defense?

As it will be. The age for issuing a license to purchase a weapon has been increased to 21 years – but not for everyone. Here is who can still buy weapons from the age of 18:

  1. Those who have completed or are undergoing military service.
  2. Those who serve in state paramilitary organizations and have military, special ranks or class ranks of justice.
  3. Citizens belonging to the indigenous peoples of the Russian Federation, leading a traditional way of life, carrying out traditional economic activities and engaged in traditional crafts in places of traditional residence. A single list of these peoples was approved by a decree of the government of the Russian Federation. These include, for example, the Saami living in the Murmansk region, the Selkups from the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Tuvans-Todzhans from the Republic of Tyva.
  4. Citizens engaged in professional activities related to hunting, such as hunters and foresters.
  5. Employees of legal entities with special statutory tasks. These include, for example, collectors and employees of private security companies.

All other citizens over the age of 18 will be able to purchase:

  1. Gas weapons.
  2. Sports weapon.
  3. Hunting smoothbore and rifled weapons – but only for sports.
  4. Signal weapon.
  5. Bladed weapons designed to be worn with national costumes or Cossack uniforms.

What does this mean for owners. Conscripted men receive an unexpected bonus. Having been demobilized at the age of 19, they have every right to apply for a license, it is not necessary to wait until the age of 21. The same is true for everyone who deals with weapons in their service or work.

I am a contract soldier, this is what Russia gives me

But if a person has not served in the army, has nothing to do with sports shooting, and wants to purchase a weapon for hunting or self-defense, one cannot obtain a license until the age of 21.

Repeating weapons – only after two years

As before. The first license gave the right to purchase smoothbore weapons of any type – with any number of barrels or with a magazine.

As it will be. In the first two years, it is allowed to own smooth-bore weapons with no more than two barrels and not having a magazine or drum.

What does this mean for owners. In the first two years it will be impossible to buy, for example, models such as Saiga, pump-action shotguns. It will not be possible to buy, say, TOZ-106 – although there are only two cartridges in its magazine. Only classic breakpoint guns will be available.

Not everyone will need to undergo training

As it was before. Owners of weapons of limited destruction, gas weapons and firearms acquired for self-defense were tested once every 5 years for knowledge of the rules and the presence of skills in the safe handling of weapons. Based on the results of the check, it was necessary to obtain a certificate and submit it to the National Guard in order to extend the permit. Those who serve in state paramilitary organizations and have military ranks or special ranks or class ranks of justice were exempted from the check.

As it will be. Another category of weapon owners was exempted from the mandatory knowledge test – those who served in law enforcement agencies and were dismissed from them into the reserve or retired with the right to a pension. They will need to submit to the Russian Guard a document confirming the length of service and giving them the right to receive a pension for years of service, such as a pension certificate.

How to protect yourself legally

What does this mean for owners. Former security officials who have received the right to a pension will save on checks.

It will be more difficult for convicted persons to obtain a license for weapons

As it was before. A license was not issued in the following cases:

  1. There is an unexpunged or outstanding conviction for an intentional crime.
  2. There is even an expunged or canceled conviction, but for a grave or especially grave crime committed with the use of weapons.
  3. A person is serving a sentence for a crime committed.
  4. A person was brought to administrative responsibility at least twice during the year for violating public order, public safety or established management procedures, for an administrative offense, violation of hunting rules. They could also refuse to issue a license because a person committed offenses in the field of drug trafficking and psychotropic substances twice during the year.

As will be. Requirements are getting tougher. Licenses will be denied:

  1. Anyone who has an unexpunged or outstanding conviction for an intentional crime.
  2. Those who even have a vacated or canceled conviction, but for a serious or especially serious crime.
  3. Those who are convicted of a deliberate crime of medium gravity, committed with the use of weapons, ammunition, explosives, explosive or simulating devices, specially manufactured technical equipment, narcotic drugs, psychotropic, potent, poisonous and radioactive substances, medicinal and other chemical and pharmacological preparations.
  4. Those who have an expunged or expunged conviction for an intentional crime related to arms trafficking.
  5. Those who have an expunged or canceled conviction for a crime of a terrorist nature, an extremist nature, or committed for the purposes of propaganda, justification and support of terrorism.
  6. Those who have an expunged or canceled conviction for an intentional crime committed with the use of violence against a minor.
  7. Those who have been convicted of crimes twice or more. The severity of the crimes in this case does not play any role.

And licenses will also be denied to those who commit administrative offenses. Will not be able to buy weapons:

  1. Those who have been prosecuted for an administrative offense involving administrative arrest.
  2. Those who were brought to administrative responsibility for the use of drugs or psychotropic substances without a doctor’s prescription or new potentially dangerous psychoactive substances.
  3. Those who have been held liable for driving while intoxicated or transferring control of a vehicle to a person who is intoxicated.

What to do? 07/23/19

My father has a criminal record. Will this affect my employment?

Such violators will not be able to obtain a license within a year from the date of expiration of the period during which they are considered subject to administrative punishment.

What does this mean for owners. It becomes more profitable for the owner of a weapon to lead a respectable lifestyle. In addition to those who had problems with the law, life will become more difficult for brawlers, those who like to solve household problems with the help of their fists, and for those who drive drunk.

The owner is required to present the weapon for inspection

As before. The right to inspect weapons was enshrined in departmental orders of the National Guard. There was no such requirement in the law, and a citizen is not required to know and comply with departmental orders.

As it will be. The law will introduce the obligation of a person who owns a weapon to present it for inspection and provide access to the places of its storage to control the conditions. At the same time, the law does not say what types of weapons are in question, which means that decommissioned weapons that cannot fire live ammunition will also have to be presented.

How to buy a home safe

What does this mean for owners. You cannot legally avoid inspection. For refusal, both the license and the permit are cancelled.

Lost and stolen weapons will have to be reported

As before. The law did not prescribe the procedure and terms for reporting the loss of weapons.

As it will be. The owner is obliged to report the loss or theft of weapons subject to registration to the National Guard immediately – within 24 hours.

What does this mean for owners. If you lose a gun while hunting, look for it on your own for a month and only then report it to the National Guard – this will be considered a violation. Responsibility may be administrative – under part 4 of article 20.8 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation. In this case, they can be fined 500-2000 R and deprived of the right to purchase, store and carry weapons for a period of 6 months to a year.

But if, due to loss due to careless storage, the weapon fell into the hands of criminals and this led to serious consequences, the responsibility will already be criminal – under article 224 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation: a fine of up to 100,000 R or imprisonment for up to 2 years.

How to properly store and transport weapons

Weapons can be confiscated for refusing to undergo a medical examination

As before. Weapons could be confiscated from a drunken citizen. But to establish that he was drunk, it was necessary to send him for a medical examination. And a person could refuse – and in this case it was impossible to seize the weapon.

As it will be. The gap has been eliminated: weapons can also be confiscated for refusing to undergo a medical examination for alcohol or drug intoxication.

What does this mean for owners. It is better not to take alcohol for hunting. And before drinking with friends in a cafe, it is better to leave a traumatic gun at home.

Responsibility for violations is being tightened

Administrative responsibility for violations related to arms trafficking is also getting tougher

FZ dated 06/28/2021 No. 232-FZ

For failure to comply with a legal requirement or obstructing the activities of an employee of the Russian Guard, exercising state supervision in the field of arms trafficking, a fine of 5,000 to 10,000 R with confiscation of weapons and ammunition or with deprivation of the right for weapons for a period of one to two years.

Violation of the rules for storing primers, gunpowder and cartridges will be fined 500-2000 R, and gunpowder, primers and cartridges may be confiscated.

If you take a weapon to a rally, you will be fined 3000-5000 R. The weapon may be confiscated, and the owner may be deprived of the right to acquire, store and carry it for a period of one to 3 years.

When the new rules come into force

The law was published on the official Internet portal of legal information on June 28, 2021. But it will enter into force one year from the date of publication – June 29, 2022.

An exception is two clauses that come into force on January 1, 2022.

Paragraph 3 of subparagraph “c” of paragraph 7 establishes that the fact of granting a license to purchase weapons is confirmed by entries made in the registers of licenses and permits. The day the license is granted is the day the licenses and permits are entered into the registers.

Clause 8 of Article 1 establishes that the register of licenses and permits is maintained by the National Guard. This paragraph also defines the list of information that is entered into the register and the procedure for providing extracts from it.

6 steps to get a license and buy a weapon

For ordinary owners, this means that from January 1, 2022, all information about their weapons and licenses, including those renewed and canceled, will be available during inspections.