Why you should be considering a freestanding kitchen
| House & Garden
Fitted kitchens may be our default approach, but opting for freestanding furniture can produce a much more characterful room, and you can take it with you when you move
By Serena Fokschaner
Alexandra Tolstoy has a freestanding kitchen in her London home
Kitchens are part of our social history. Think of the below-stairs, smoke-darkened kitchen of the Georgian townhouse; an out of sight workhorse where exhausted servants slept next to blackened ranges. The post Second World War years saw the rise of the fitted kitchen designed to house new appliances like the washing machine–emancipatory emblems of a new era. In the 1980s Sloane Rangers installed Agas and folksy, hand-painted tiles in their Fulham terraces to satisfy rural yearnings. By the Noughties, kitchens had become status symbols. Back walls were blitzed and glass extensions bolted on to house designer cabinets and islands the size of lakes for testing out Nigella’s latest. In more sober times, all that glossiness feels unpalatable. Hence the return of the freestanding kitchen: pottery-festooned dressers, trestle tables, glazed cabinets mixed with a few fitted pieces in a low-key pot pourri of styles.
Lockdown also lies behind the shift to the undone look. We spent most of our time in our kitchens; working, eating or bickering with our teenagers over who finished the oat milk or forgot to put the rubbish out. Incarcerated within four walls, we began to think about our kitchens should make us feel. Suddenly those bashed out, open-plan spaces with their glacial finishes didn’t feel quite so appealing. Warmth, tactility – and a quiet nook to perch with your laptop – that is what more of us are craving.
The environment is another factor. Fitted kitchens can run in to five figure sums, but you can’t take them with you. Estate agents will tell you that kitchens are meant to add value. I have yet to hear of anyone buying a property for its worktops. It is the space that counts. The truth is that whoever buys your home is likely to rip out your kitchen at a later date. The carcasses – often tricky to recycle – usually end up languishing in a landfill. To be clear. We are not advocating that you rip out your hard-won kitchen. But if you are starting from scratch, then a few built-in cupboards with portable pieces – preferably antique or made from natural materials – is a judicious and earth-friendly option.
And there are no rules. Industrial, rustic, Scandi, Downton-esque Edwardiana – it can all work. One of my favourite kitchens (along with Monet’s joyful, blue and white one at his home in Giverny) doing the Instagram rounds is Belgian designer JP de Meyer’s – a gleaming row of steel units, a curtain-frilled chopping table against candy-coloured tiles sum up the current, free spirited culinary mood.
Patrick Williams’ kitchen in Bath
Designer Patrick Williams, of Berdoulat in Bath, has long ‘preached’ the idea of a space that “feels less kitchen-y, and more like a living room… it’s where we spend most of our time and it feels right to furnish it with furniture that looks as if it has come together organically. We’d never fill our living rooms with pieces from the same shop. So why not the same for kitchens?” he says. “The proportions of fitted kitchens are dictated by the appliances they have to house,” he continues. “For our projects we use pieces chosen to reflect their architectural setting. If you have room, adding paintings or rugs always make a kitchen feel cosier and down to earth.”
Patrick, who named his business after the 18th-century house in France his parents painstakingly restored from scratch (memories of mixing the lime mortar linger on), draws on antiques for his designs: oak tables that do duty as worktops, charming plate racks and dressers are made in a local Somerset workshop. “I compare furniture to a folk song: no one really owns the designs, they are passed down and adapted and tweaked over time,” he explains.
11 kitchens that prove the plate rack is a hero accessory
By Arabella Bowes
Patrick and his wife live above their shop in Bath. Their kitchen, set in the former 19th-century storeroom, was loosely inspired by the kitchens of great houses – like Lutyens’s Castle Drogo, a mix of utility and beauty – which Patrick, who originally studied Fine Art, has explored over the years. An electric range sits next to a sink with an open pot shelf below and a traditional plate rack above; “It’s an efficient way of storing everyday plates and crockery so they are ready to use.” And of course, “they drip dry so you can avoid the skanky tea towel.”
Even the bin is worth ‘celebrating’: an old tin grain bin (with handy compartments for recycling) its pink surface mottled with a pleasing patina of time. Less aesthetic paraphernalia – the mixer, bowls or Tupperware – are concealed by a ‘hard-working’ glazed screen. “Things can be fairly chaotic but if you hide them behind a screen there is an order to them,” he adds.
Benedict Foley and Daniel Slowik’s kitchen
Designer and antiques dealer Benedict Foley is another free-range advocate. His kitchen, in the Vale of Dedham cottage where he lives with his partner, the interior designer Daniel Slowik, is a jostling mix of ‘barely-fitted’ vivid blue cupboards against sunshine-bright yellow walls. A wonky, painted dresser teems with books, pottery, dangling mugs and ingredient-splattered cookery books. During lockdown, when Daniel took over the cooking, the dresser moved to suit his working methods. “The cookery writer Elizabeth David’s culinary arrangements are our touchstone for utility and logical beauty. They were workshop-like, with often-used items close to hand. Acres of blank fitted cupboards, in my experience, tend to harbour so many little used of those supposedly labour-saving devices,” says Benedict who has precise views on these matters.
“A pleasing dresser, sometimes hundreds of years old, will still do exactly what it was designed for, housing ceramics and oddments of whatever period you favour. And when you move, rather than abandoning your investment to the whims of someone else’s taste, you can take your kitchen with you in the same way you would your paintings and furniture,” he adds.
For her west London house, interior designer Sarah Brown worked with Plain English to plot a space that nods gently to its Edwardian setting. A bank of under counter cupboards, in fresco-pink, line one wall; antique French confit pots, in glowing glazes, sit on a shelf above. Instead of an island, which would have gobbled up the view of the garden, a convivial ‘chop and chat table’ – designed for doing just that – sits under the window.
For the first floor of a loftily-scaled Grade I Georgian townhouse, Nicola Harding adopted an equally sympathetic approach. A long table with a practical worktop serves as island in disguise: the Arts & Crafts oak table from Howe London with chairs in non-matching colours, sits beneath the sash window. Despite the grand proportions, this is very much a family space. The children’s artwork, specially framed, choruses against walls painted in Farrow & Ball’s ethereal ‘Setting Plaster’, chosen, says Nicola, “because it works at any light level, or any time of the year.”
A freestanding cupboard in Toby Lorford’s kitchen
At Lorford’s in Gloucestershire (the largest antiques emporium in Europe) buyers have their pick of kitchenalia. “I’ve always combined periods and styles in my own home and I love the flexibility and personality of free-standing furniture,” says owner Toby Lorford. “We often help designers source unusual solutions for kitchens that add uniqueness,” he continues. “Oversized cabinetry, antique shop counters, pharmacy display pieces and drapers’ tables can all be perfect alternatives to built-in storage or island units,” details Toby, whose own kitchen is a cheerful patchwork of finds: a 20th-century French iron table base with a Welsh slate top, or the 1950s metal cupboard with mesh doors for flaunting plates and books.
There is no right or wrong way to mix things says Leila Touwen of London-based kitchen makers Pluck, whose low-key, Scandi-ish cabinets are as versatile as a little black dress. “We’ve seen our kitchens combined with Victorian sideboards, art deco lighting, Modernist dining tables, contemporary chairs, artwork from different eras.” Their latest design – its name a tongue-in-cheek nod to rus in urbe hipsterish yearnings – is the Brixton dresser made from London Plane chosen for its gently speckled texture. Inspired by traditional Welsh versions, the customisable design can be painted to suit different settings. “The joy of a dresser is that it gives you the opportunity to display and decorate. It adds fun. So before you commit to one it’s wise to get your basic kitchen storage sorted,” says Leila.
If you have the wall to spare, Somerset furniture maker Jan Lennon’s Marlstone sideboard is a concert of walnut and rippled sycamore. Tambour doors glide open to reveal shelves with deep drawers for cutlery, bottles or table linen. It would glow against metal, industrial-style under-counter cabinets (try Buster & Punch). At British Standard – Plain English’s sister brand – off-the-peg wooden units, made in Suffolk, open shelving or tall larder cupboards have a Shaker-ish charm. String, Scandinavian post-war pioneer of versatile storage, does a neat, below-counter steel shelving unit for pots, pans or trailing house plants.
Pinch’s kitchen perennials include the Emil dresser, its curved silhouette inspired by antique French farmhouse furniture, with grommets for cable management, or the glass-fronted Joyce. Woodsman Sebastian Cox’s textural, Shake cabinet – made from blackened, split slices of English oak and ash – perches on slender legs; embroiderer Aimee Betts and furniture maker Gareth Neal pooled their skills for distinctive effect on the Stitched Sideboard. But if yours is a galley kitchen barely wide enough to flounce a tea towel in, then a plate rack will add the requisite note: warm, practical and portable.
Freestanding kitchen ideas for a versatile and relaxed space
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Freestanding kitchen ideas, as their name implies, stand independently, and can be reconfigured as and when needed.
As a result, kitchen ideas of this style has a more laid-back aesthetic that honours historical designs and works seamlessly in a period home.
‘Freestanding kitchen ideas don’t require the immediate, hefty investment of a fitted design. Instead, you can select the pieces you need right away and then add more as your family evolves,’ explains Al Bruce, founder of Olive & Barr.
Freestanding kitchen ideas
The benefits of freestanding kitchen ideas are numerous. You don’t need to have costly fitted appliances, you can use existing or second-hand furniture (such as a cupboard, sideboard or dresser). And you can move your units around if you fancy a change to your kitchen layout later on.
Whether looking to embrace farmhouse kitchen ideas or are hoping to achieve a more modern kitchen look, there are freestanding kitchen ideas that will suit your space.
1. Use freestanding kitchens in an open-plan space
(Image credit: Olive & Barr)
Since they are comprised of several different pieces of furniture, freestanding kitchen ideas evoke a more laid-back feel. This is particularly beneficial when designing a large open-plan kitchen, where the kitchen area will bleed into dining and living zones. This kitchen designed by Olive & Barr features its Harvest table. Freestanding islands or farmhouse tables can also play a key role in zoning out an open-plan space where they serve as a room divider.
2. Open for a wheeled island for ultimate versatility
(Image credit: Devol)
Effortless to move, a portable kitchen island on wheels can be easily repositioned to the spot where it will be of most benefit, or can be tucked away when unneeded.
If opting for this style of island, however, you must be cautious of your flooring – select a soft tread castor to prevent marks, scratches or dimpling, especially with wooden floors. Wheel breaks are also essential. Featured is Devol’s Sebastian Cox kitchen, with a bespoke island on wheels.
Wheeled islands are a particularly good fit for small kitchen ideas where the ability to move it out of the way will be highly beneficial.
3. Adapt your freestanding kitchen to suit your lifestyle
(Image credit: Future)
Unlike a fitted kitchen, which will be designed and installed within a set period, freestanding kitchen ideas can grow organically, as and when you find the perfect pieces. This totally removes the daunting aspect of learning how to plan a kitchen as you will live with the space and work out what feels right and will be useful.
Ensure that you are always prepared to snap up any bargains, by carrying a note of the room’s dimensions, including door sizes and ceiling heights, when visiting antiques shops, auction houses or reclamation yards. Wells Reclamation and Tobys Reclamation make for good starting points.
4. Expand your kitchen with a freestanding dresser
(Image credit: Martin Moore)
Moving away from fitted cabinetry lets you think outside the box in terms of how you design the space. This freestanding appliance cupboard, from Martin Moore, has been placed separately from the main kitchen area and serves as an ideal breakfast or drinks station.
Located next to the dining table, it is easy for people to self-serve breakfast or make drinks, while keeping them out of the way of the cook. It also offers valuable kitchen storage ideas, removing worktop clutter in the main kitchen.
5. Get creative with colour
(Image credit: British Standard)
‘Runs of fitted cupboards tend to be painted in one colour, while freestanding designs provide the opportunity to inject a whole range of bold shades,’ says Will Eaves, international design coordinator at British Standard, as seen in this colourful kitchen. While the creative freedom is exciting, it is important to keep to a theme – whether that is neutrals or colours from the same palette – to prevent the space from feeling too eclectic.
If you have an old dresser and aren’t happy with the colour or finish, consider giving it a coat of paint to suit your scheme. It’s a simple approach to decorating a freestanding kitchen – especially if you use the best paint for furniture – but will make the most of any existing furniture you may have.
6. Add a bespoke pantry to any style of kitchen
(Image credit: Davonport)
A separate kitchen pantry is an invaluable addition to fitted and freestanding kitchens alike. ‘Since the pantry is an individual piece of furniture, it can be designed to complement or contrast existing pieces,’ says Richard Davonport, managing director at Davonport.
‘Adding drawers and shelving to your pantry can also save room elsewhere; consider a dedicated appliance drawer, which can clear worktop areas, while an internal spice rack can free up cupboard space. ’
7. Mix freestanding and fitted
(Image credit: Future/Jeremy Phillips)
You don’t have to completely commit to freestanding kitchen ideas to still enjoy the benefits. In this kitchen, bespoke fitted cabinetry has been crafted from unpainted iroko wood, topped with zinc worktops, and designed with legs so that it stands elegantly alongside a separate dresser and larder cupboard, achieving a sense of harmony between both styles.
8. Create displays with quirky cabinets
(Image credit: Future/Douglas Gibb)
While you can mix and match cabinetry styles in a fitted kitchen, it is limited. With freestanding kitchen ideas, you can reach a whole new level, as seen in this space.
Here, kitchen shelving replaces conventional wall cupboards, creating a display of copper pans and kitchenalia, while the cabinet combines closed storage with reclaimed vegetable drawers for a vintage-inspired display of crockery and chinaware – perfect for achieving a vintage kitchen look.
9. Design a freestanding kitchen to suit an awkward layout
(Image credit: Future/Penny Wincer)
In most cases, fitted kitchens are designed to suit a square or rectangular footprint; however, period homes don’t always adhere to traditional kitchen ideas. This is where freestanding kitchen ideas come into their own.
The added flexibility is invaluable when faced with irregular floorplans, wonky walls, uneven floors, and avoiding beams or original features. In a fully freestanding kitchen, you can even opt for a standalone sink, with only the plumbing anchoring it to its place.
10. Choose freestanding for a sustainable design
(Image credit: Future)
Designing a freestanding kitchen gives you the opportunity to incorporate antiques and vintage into your space.
‘Buying pre-loved is a more ethical way to buy, especially at a time when mass consumption is costing us the earth and driving small businesses under,’ says antiques expert Alice Roberton. ‘While people often come to vintage from a sustainability standpoint, they stay for the instantaneous burst of character that antique and reclaimed furniture and accessories bring into their home.’
11. Get the look with mirrors
(Image credit: Sustainable Kitchens)
Even if you aren’t planning or do not want the expense of undertaking a full kitchen renovation, there are still ways to achieve a freestanding look. Replacing a painted kickboard with a mirrored version will give the illusion of standalone cabinetry – especially if there are ‘legs’ on either side of each individual unit, as seen in this design by Sustainable Kitchens.
12. Choose freestanding elements to channel the country look
(Image credit: Future)
Incorporating unattached elements into your kitchen is perfect if you are hoping
to channel country kitchen ideas. Drawing on traditional kitchen design, here bespoke wood in-frame base cabinets were teamed with freestanding pieces, including a moveable island, a plate rack and wicker storage baskets, to create a welcoming, lived-in feel.
What is the difference between freestanding and fitted kitchen?
Simply put a freestanding kitchen stands on its own while a fitted kitchen is fitted to the walls. Each freestanding piece of furniture will be able to be moved with relative ease to create a new layout, whereas with a fitted kitchen the layout and floorplan are firmly fixed.
Unfitted works best in larger rooms because you have the flexibility to include standard-sized units in between the key areas of sink, cooker and fridge.
Which kitchen layout is the most economical?
Freestanding kitchen layouts are the most economical. The fact that everything doesn’t ‘match’ means freestanding kitchens are often more affordable than fitted kitchens. They’re certainly a more flexible kitchen design, too. And can evolve to fit in with your needs, rather than being perfectly planned from the outset.
Features of Russian and British cuisine
State budgetary educational institution of Moscow
School No. 1287
on the topic
“Peculiarities of Russian and British Cuisine”
Kazarina Nora, Ignatova Yana
Chapter 1. Theoretical part.
1.1. History and characteristics of British cuisine…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5
1.2. History and features of Russian cuisine……… ……….…………………………………………. 10
1.3.. Similarities and differences between Russian and British cuisine ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………15
Chapter 2. Practical part.
2.1. Creation of the cookbook “Russian and British Cuisine”……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………..…….17
References…………………..….………………………………………………… ………………… 18
Chapter 1. Theoretical part.
It is difficult to imagine modern life without popular and varied dishes that give us vigor and strength after a long study or working day and support a pleasant conversation.
Each country has its own traditional dishes, which are its “visiting card”. Many people love the cuisine of their country, and someone prefers the cuisines of different countries. European traditional dishes came to us from countries such as England, France, Italy, Spain. Russia has also contributed a lot to the history of European cuisine.
The relevance of the chosen topic lies in the fact that:
- it is impossible to get a true picture of Russia – the homeland of Russian students and Great Britain – the country of the language we study, without getting acquainted with its cuisine, as the cuisine reflects the peculiarities of the country and culture.
- in the modern world, where cultural education plays an important role, knowledge of the culture of the country of the language being studied will help to better understand this country, and knowledge of one’s own country brings a person closer to his homeland
- the study of traditions, including traditional cuisine, cultivates curiosity in a person and broadens one’s horizons
Purpose of : research and comparison of traditional Russian and British cuisine, creation of a cookbook with Russian and British recipes.
- Explore the features of British and Russian cuisine: compare them with each other, highlight the bright features.
- Learn to work with teaching materials (student survey).
- Create a cookbook of recipes that can be used at home or studied at school in the lessons of regional studies or within the framework of the topic “Traditions”, “Food”, “Cuisines of the world”
Problem. The modern world listens to English and Russian music, writes literature in English. English and Russian cuisine is supposed to enjoy worldwide recognition, but the world generally prefers French or Japanese cuisine, while English and Russian cuisine is not in demand. To understand this issue, hypothesis that the national cuisines of England and Russia have a number of differences and similarities.
Research subject – traditional cuisine.
Research object – culinary specialties of Britain and Russia, Russian and British recipes.
The following research methods were used to achieve the set objectives.
- material selection;
- systematization of material;
- research and analysis of scientific literature;
- analysis and comparison of British and Russian cuisine.
- sociological survey among classmates;
- summarizing and organizing data to create a cookbook.
- The history and characteristics of British cuisine
The national cuisine of Britain has been formed over many centuries since the time when the British Isles were inhabited by local Celts and other tribal peoples. The Celts cultivated oats and wheat. The peasants ate bread from cheap grain and bran, white bread from wheat was given to wealthy people.
In the Roman era, various vegetables were widely used – asparagus, cucumbers, celery, turnips, parsnips. Already at that time, the inhabitants of the islands used simple seasonings – onion, coriander, rosemary, mint, marjoram.
In the 9th century, smoked fish was brought to Britain from Denmark and Norway, and it quickly fell in love with the local population. In the Middle Ages, the British began to raise cattle, meat became much more affordable. Beef was the most popular, and bacon was made from pork, which saved in cold winters. The bird was less accessible, only game fell on the tables and only aristocrats got it. A peacock or a swan was the decoration of a luxurious meal for wealthy people.
In the Middle Ages, bakeries and bakeries appeared in Britain, thanks to which the peasants then could afford to buy good bread. In the 13th century, the English authorities set a uniform price standard for bread to prevent bakers from overcharging. Measures against violators of this standard were severe.
During the heyday of the British colonies, the national cuisine succumbed to the strong influence of other countries. In the 15th and 16th centuries, “overseas” products began to enter the British Isles – oranges, carrots, sugar cane, peaches, lemons, potatoes, peppers. In the 17th century, the British brought tea to their land, which became an integral part of the national cuisine. Even later, coffee, chocolate, tomatoes, bananas appeared in the UK. British cuisine was particularly influenced by Indian traditions: Indian spices spread, curry gained immense popularity among the British, and the Indian dish tikka masala became part of the national English cuisine.
The Victorian era saw the birth of the English tradition of tea drinking. Sweet buns, sandwiches, light snacks and other types of pastries, such as French baguette, were served with tea with milk.
In the 19th century, potatoes in British dishes became more hearty and plentiful, as during a period of rapid industrialization and economic growth, many workers needed hearty and high-calorie food.
Despite the spread of English culture around the world, British culinary traditions have not received much international recognition because British food is considered simple, uncomplicated, unrefined, devoid of fantasy, but hearty and heavy. Today, the British are opting for simple and quick cooking methods that preserve the natural taste of food. Spices and seasonings are used rarely and in small quantities, they are quite simple and do not change, but only accentuate the taste of dishes.
One of the components of modern national cuisine is the tradition of eating. For example, a traditional British breakfast is very hearty: scrambled eggs, bacon, beans in tomato sauce, vegetables, tea. Sometimes instead of scrambled eggs, scrambled eggs or soft-boiled eggs. Oatmeal for breakfast, contrary to popular belief, is now rarely eaten. English lunch (lunch) is usually simple and light, it can be called a second breakfast. Usually this is an egg, chicken with a light sauce, tuna sandwiches, ham. This meal appeared relatively recently, during the time of Queen Victoria or in the so-called Victorian era.
English people traditionally drink tea at 5 pm. This meal is called five o’clock tea or simply tea. At this time, buns, puffs, small sweet sandwiches are served. Classic buns for tea are called scoons – they are made with a variety of fillings, and served with cream. Nowadays, the tradition of tea drinking is observed only among some aristocrats. Most of the population have dinner at this time of the day or later. For dinner, they eat steaks, potatoes with vegetables, vegetable puree soups.
On Sundays, the British prepare Sunday Roast Carvery dinners: for example, roast meat with vegetables and Yorkshire pudding. The preparation of these Sunday dinners is a special subtle and complex science. As a meat dish, lamb nona, pork, chicken, ham, and game are used. A certain side dish, sauce and seasonings are suitable for meat.
The origin of the tradition of Sunday dinners is not exactly established. According to one version, on Sundays, medieval peasants did not work, but practiced martial arts and roasted meat on a spit. According to another version, it was a tradition in Yorkshire before going to church on Sunday to leave a piece of meat in the oven so that it would be ready just in time for returning home.
The British pride themselves on using quality local ingredients for cooking. Many of them are of English origin or are used very often, so they can be called national. Among them:
Cheese Cheddar is an English cheese from the village of Cheddar in Somerset. Hard yellowish cheese with a nutty flavor and pronounced salinity.
Marmite is a salty brown paste made from yeast extract with spices, has a bright smell and taste.
Gravy is a classic English meat juice sauce similar to Russian gravy.
Green Asparagus is a strong tasting variety that is excellent for growing in the British climate.
Sea bass and cod are the most popular varieties of fish in Britain with juicy, moderately fatty and elastic meat. Cod is traditionally used to cook fried fish and chips – fish and chips.
Kent apples is a famous apple variety from Kent, a province called the garden of England.
Welsh Lamb is the firm and lean meat of the Welsh Highland sheep, a long-haired breed common in Wales and England.
Worcestershire sauce is a sweet and sour sauce made from vinegar, fish and spices.
The most famous British dishes:
Fish and chips – french fries and deep-fried fish pieces, the most common fast food in the UK, which can be ordered in any pub.
Yorkshire pudding is a traditional English battered appetizer, savory fluffy buns made from batter, the classic composition of which is fat dripping from roasting meat.
Shepherd’s pie or shepherd’s pie – a casserole of mashed potatoes and minced meat (traditional lamb) with vegetables and Worcester sauce. Shepherd’s pie with meat other than lamb is called cottage pie.
Trifle is an English biscuit dessert with thick cream, fruit and whipped cream. The dish is easy and quick to prepare, thanks to which it got its name: the word trifle is translated as “trifle”.
English roast beef – a large piece of beef, whole roasted in the oven, traditionally without spices and salt, with vegetable oil.
Scotch Eggs Boiled or pickled eggs in minced meat, fried in breadcrumbs.
Cornish pasty – a small oval baked pastry pie, often flaky, with various fillings; the classic version is considered to be with potatoes, onions and pieces of beef. Cheese, chicken and pork pies are also popular.
Scotch egg (Scottish eggs) – boiled eggs, which are coated with minced meat, and then fried in breadcrumbs.
Cottage pie (or shepherd’s pie, “shepherd’s pie”) – mashed potato casserole stuffed with ground beef.
Lancashire Pudding (Lancashire Hotpot) – lamb with potato slices, baked over low heat.
Suite – pudding (Suet Pudding) – meat baked in a dough mixed with lard.
Haggis (Haggis) – a mixture of oatmeal and offal cooked in a sheep’s stomach. It is usually served with mashed turnips and potatoes.
Chocolate Fudge Cake (Chocolate Fudge Cake) – chocolate cake.
In addition, different regions of the UK have their own regional delicacies. In Wales, this is lamb in mint sauce, in Scotland – oatmeal with meat and spices, in England – steaks, in Northern Ireland – trout.
- History and features of Russian cuisine
The basis of the diet of ancient Russians was bread, flour products and grain dishes. Housewives baked pancakes and rye pies, cooked flour jelly. Not a single solemn event in the family was complete without delicious pastries, for example, kurniki were baked for a wedding, pancakes and pies were baked for Maslenitsa. The fillings of the pies were very different – fish, meat, poultry, mushrooms, berries, cottage cheese, vegetables, fruits and even cereals. A dear guest was greeted with a loaf and salt. The loaf was placed in the center of the table at any feast. Also indispensable on the Russian table are porridges. Kashi in Rus’ served as an object of worship and a symbol of domestic well-being. Vegetables – cabbage, turnips, radishes, peas, cucumbers – were either eaten raw or salted, steamed, boiled or baked.
In the 16th century, the Kazan and Astrakhan khanates, as well as Bashkiria and Siberia, became part of the Russian state. The new peoples brought to Russian cuisine such outlandish products for those times as raisins (grapes), apricots, figs (figs), melons, watermelons, fan, overseas lemons and tea. The sweet table has also changed significantly: gingerbread, sweet pies, candied fruit, apple marshmallow, and numerous jams appeared. It is no accident that the 17th century was the heyday of Russian traditional cuisine, which was already extremely diverse in terms of the choice of dishes. Peasant cuisine, in turn, is becoming more and more simplified and impoverished. From the same century came the division of the table according to class. Previously, the table of the nobility differed from the table of the commoner only in the number of dishes. Now the nobility introduces a number of overseas dishes and culinary techniques into Russian cuisine. The main place on the table of the nobility begins to be occupied by fried meat, poultry and game. Corned beef is prepared from beef; pork is used to make ham, boiled pork, it is also used in fried and stewed form; lamb, poultry and game are used for roasts. In the 17th century, all the main types of Russian soups were finally formed – hodgepodges, pickles, – necessarily containing fermentation, lemon and olives. It was during this period that such well-known delicacies as black caviar, salted and jellied red fish take pride of place on the table.
Starting from the Petrine period, the Russian nobility borrowed Western European culinary traditions and customs. Rich and noble nobles who visited Western Europe bring foreign chefs. It was at this time that dishes from ground meat (cutlets, casseroles, pates, rolls) penetrate the Russian menu, Swedish, German, French soups (dairy, vegetable, mashed) appear. It is quite natural that foreign chefs prepared not Russian, but their own national dishes, which harmoniously fit into Russian cuisine. German sandwiches, butter, French and Dutch cheeses, unknown until then on the Russian table, also came from the West. Under Peter I, the word “soup” appeared, before that liquid dishes were called stews, which meant first courses with noodles, cereals, and vegetables. Soups were served in pots or cast iron.
The menu of a Russian peasant in the 19th century depended heavily on the location of his village. If this village was not far from a large city or if there was a railway nearby, then the peasants could export part of their products and sell them at the market in the city, which significantly improved their financial situation. The villages that were engaged in handicrafts and could sell their industrial products lived much better. This menu, as before, consisted of cereals, which turned into bread, porridge, soup, pastries. Meat was a seasonal product, because fresh meat could only be consumed at the time when the cattle were slaughtered, that is, in late autumn, and the meat had to be stored somehow for several months. In addition, the menu of the Russian peasant was replenished with potatoes, which became an integral part of his diet. Potatoes were recommended to be added to bread during the years of crop failures of rye or wheat. Wheat bread ceases to be something exclusive and becomes available to most peasant families, sunflower oil also replaces all other types of vegetable oil. The last important product – sugar – is also becoming cheaper and becomes an absolutely necessary product. Equivalent to the “bread and salt” greeting, one of the traditional greetings for a guest who appears on the doorstep of the house was “tea and sugar”. In more prosperous families, products such as coffee, raisins, prunes, cheese, almonds and sausages appear. With this, Russia approached the First World War, and then a completely different stage began in the history of cuisine and in the history of the Russian state.
In Soviet times (starting from the 20s of the 20th century), Russian cuisine was formed due to internal migration to the USSR of various peoples outside the traditional region of residence. This was due to the high mobility of the population, admission to universities from all over the country, development of hard-to-reach lands of Siberia, virgin lands of the Far East and the Far North and their resources, distribution to work after graduation, deportation of peoples. Food industry products (canned food, semi-finished products, drinks) can also be attributed to Soviet cuisine, since it was an integral part of the daily diet of Soviet citizens. Russian cuisine of the Soviet period is characterized by a certain amount of products and a simplified recipe for cooking. The dishes of this cuisine were mastered not only by housewives, but were also distributed in canteens throughout the country. It became an integral part of home cooking and was used in parallel with national dishes, especially in large cities. In general and in general, Soviet cuisine was shaped by Soviet eating habits and the different availability of products in most regions of the USSR. Most of the dishes were simplified versions of Russian, Caucasian, French and Austro-Hungarian cuisines. At 19In the 1930s, the construction of modern food industry enterprises began in the USSR, including for the production of dairy products, meat products, canned fish, meat, vegetables and fruits, and condensed milk.
Modern Russian food combines its ancient traditions and at the same time intertwines with new trends and currents. Many people still cook traditional Russian dishes, while many prefer fast food, food from foreign countries. Russian cuisine – both traditional and modern, is considered high-calorie, satisfying, rich, fatty. The most famous and popular Russian dishes:
Dumplings. A mixture of ground beef, lamb and chicken wrapped in an unleavened dough envelope and boiled in boiling salted water.
Pie . Pie with open filling.
Pancakes. Thin fried flatbread.
Okroshka. Cold soup with vegetables and meat seasoned with kvass or kefir.
cabbage soup. Soup with sauerkraut.
Borsch. Soup with beets and vegetables.
Pickle. Barley soup with pickles.
Vinaigrette . Salad of finely chopped boiled and baked vegetables.
Aspic . Appetizer of meat with frozen broth.
Herring under a fur coat. New Year’s salad with layers of vegetables and herring.
Vareniki. Boiled dough with various fillings: cottage cheese, potatoes, meat or cherries. Kisel. Gelatinous dish, starch or cereal.
Quas. A sour drink made from fermentation of flour and malt.
- Similarities and differences between Russian and British cuisine
In the course of doing research, we managed to find out that despite the fact that Great Britain and Russia are located in different parts of the globe, there is something in common and different between them. For example, in the UK, tea is drunk about six times, and in Russia – only for breakfast and afternoon tea. Also in Russia, the first thing is very often eaten for lunch – soup. English cuisine contains only mashed soups, which are an independent dish. In Russia, puddings are practically not consumed, and in the UK this is one of the main dishes. In the UK, for the holidays, people cook a turkey, and in Russia they bake a chicken in the oven. Russia cooks charlotte, and in the UK they love chocolate cake.
There are similarities in the kitchens of Great Britain and Russia . Examples are porridge or scrambled eggs for breakfast, cheese and pork rinds, oven-baked beef dishes, which are loved in both countries. Both in the UK and in Russia, people love cupcakes and various cakes, fruits. In both countries, it is customary to eat heavily for breakfast. Both Russia and the UK love meat. However, in Russia it is customary to eat fairly well at every meal, while in the UK, tea and light snacks are preferred instead.
It is also worth noting that the climate of Great Britain and Russia is sometimes similar, especially in autumn, so both cuisines contain a lot of warming, hearty and high-calorie dishes for rainy and chilly days: soups, gravies, thick side dishes, pastries.
Chapter 2. Practical part.
2.1. Creating a cookbook “Russian and British cuisine”
The product of our project was the creation of a cookbook with Russian and British recipes in Russian and English. It includes the recipes indicated in this work. This book can be used in English lessons within the framework of the topic “Culture of Great Britain”, in country studies classes, in everyday life when preparing these dishes, and also be stored in the English room and be available to all interested classmates. (see Appendix No. 1)
In the course of work we learned:
- about many dishes of Russian and English cuisine;
- compared the cuisines of these countries and found out that in these cuisines there are similarities and differences in cooking;
- realized that traditional dishes are the hallmark of these countries
- found out that our hypothesis was confirmed: Russian and British cuisine have similarities and differences, as well as characteristic features.
List of used literature and Internet sources
- British cuisine [Electronic resource] – Access mode. — https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C1%F0%E8%F2%E0%ED%F1%EA%E0%FF_%EA%F3%F5%ED%FF
- English (topics/topics): Russian Cuisine – Russian cuisine [Electronic resource] – access mode. — http://www.alleng.ru/engl-top/641.htm
- UK. [Electronic resource] – Access mode. https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%92%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%80%D0%B8%D1 %82%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%8F
- Volodarsky O. To the English World – 2009
- Pokhlebkin V., National cuisines of our peoples – Centerpolygraph, 2004
- Russian cuisine. [Electronic resource] – Access mode. — https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%F3%F1%F1%EA%E0%FF_%EA%F3%F5%ED%FF
- English national cuisine. [Electronic resource] Access mode. — http://gurmanika. com/kuhni/anglijskaya
- National cuisine of Great Britain. [Electronic resource] – Access mode. — http://countries.turistua.com/ru/velikobritaniya-kitchen.htm
- English dishes. [Electronic resource] – Access mode. — http://supercook.ru/zz330-08.html
- Tea traditions of England. Tea etiquette. [Electronic resource] – Access mode. — http://beautylike.ru/articles/world-around-us/592-chainye-traditsii-anglii
Peculiarities of Russian and British cuisine
“it will be difficult” — Boris Johnson told what awaits the British until the end of the year — InoTV
British Prime Minister Boris Johnson warned that hard times await the country until the end of the year. In an interview with Sky News, he laid the blame on Russian President Vladimir Putin’s actions in Ukraine. Johnson promised the British help in the cost of living crisis and said that the United Kingdom will have a long-term strategy for energy security.
The Prime Minister has just given an interview. Among other things, Boris Johnson spoke about plans to deal with the cost of living crisis. The interview just appeared on our Sky News, let’s listen.
BORIS JOHNSON, UK Prime Minister: It’s important to remember that eight million needy households will receive £1,200 in aid. In October, almost everyone will receive 400 pounds. That’s 29 million families who will receive £400. In November, each pensioner will receive £300 in aid in the face of rising energy costs. Plus, everyone who qualifies for disability benefits will get £150…
BORIS JOHNSON: And all this in addition to what we are doing, increasing the cost of living, increasing support through universal assistance… 9041 8
… But you promised in weekend extra aid on top of all those billions of pounds, which is amazing, but we’ve known about it for weeks… Do you know, for example, what is Liz Truss’s economic plan? Rishi Sunaka’s camp claims she doesn’t have it. We were hoping to learn about this from today’s interview, from which she left. Do you know what her economic plan might be?
BORIS JOHNSON: Yes, look, let me say again that a huge amount has already been given, £650 has already been given and many more will be given. Regardless of which of the two candidates wins next week, the government is also set to provide an additional support package to help people with energy bills.
We are going through difficult months. I’m not going to hide it. It will be difficult in the coming months, it will be difficult until next year. And this is because of Putin’s war in Ukraine. There is no doubt that gas prices — gas, gas, gas — are driven by what Putin has done in Ukraine. But we’ll get through this.
This year – I’ll give you some statistics – we get 26 percent more of our own gas from the North Sea than last year. We are much less dependent on Putin’s supplies. In June of this year, for the first time in decades, we completely abandoned the import of fuel from Russia. And at the same time, and I just want to give people hope and perspective…
BORIS JOHNSON: Because it’s very important: in addition to the cash we provide, and don’t forget – , we can provide these funds because we are in a strong economic position, in general we have very low unemployment, we have there are reserves because we have come out of the pandemic COVID…
Good. Let’s move on, because I know you don’t have much time. So I want to ask…
BORIS JOHNSON: I want to add one question…
BORIS JOHNSON: Very, very important. Because people are really worried about this, they want to know that we will have a long-term strategy for UK energy security. And we will have it.